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Health Promotion in Nursing Practice A BitTorrent file distribution consists of these entities: There are ideally many end users for a single file.

Start running a tracker or, more likely, have one running already. Start running an ordinary web server, such as apache, or have one already.

Associate the extension. Generate a metainfo. Put the metainfo file on the web server. Link to the metainfo.

Start a downloader which already has the complete file the 'origin'. Install BitTorrent or have done so already.

Surf the web. Click on a link to a. Select where to save the file locally, or select a partial download to resume. Wait for download to complete.

Tell downloader to exit it keeps uploading until this happens. Metainfo files also known as. All strings in a. The name key maps to a UTF-8 encoded string which is the suggested name to save the file or directory as.

It is purely advisory. For the purposes of transfer, files are split into fixed-size pieces which are all the same length except for possibly the last one which may be truncated.

It is to be subdivided into strings of length 20, each of which is the SHA1 hash of the piece at the corresponding index. There is also a key length or a key files , but not both or neither.

If length is present then the download represents a single file, otherwise it represents a set of files which go in a directory structure.

In the single file case, length maps to the length of the file in bytes. For the purposes of the other keys, the multi-file case is treated as only having a single file by concatenating the files in the order they appear in the files list.

The files list is the value files maps to, and is a list of dictionaries containing the following keys: length - The length of the file, in bytes.

In the single file case, the name key is the name of a file, in the muliple file case, it's the name of a directory. Tracker GET requests have the following keys: The 20 byte sha1 hash of the bencoded form of the info value from the metainfo file.

This value will almost certainly have to be escaped. Note that this is a substring of the metainfo file. The info-hash must be the hash of the encoded form as found in the.

Conversely that means clients must either reject invalid metainfo files or extract the substring directly. They must not perform a decode-encode roundtrip on invalid data.

Each downloader generates its own id at random at the start of a new download. This value will also almost certainly have to be escaped.

Generally used for the origin if it's on the same machine as the tracker. Common behavior is for a downloader to try to listen on port and if that port is taken try , then , etc.

Note that this can't be computed from downloaded and the file length since it might be a resume, and there's a chance that some of the downloaded data failed an integrity check and had to be re-downloaded.

If not present, this is one of the announcements done at regular intervals. An announcement using started is sent when a download first begins, and one using completed is sent when the download is complete.

No completed is sent if the file was complete when started. Downloaders send an announcement using stopped when they cease downloading. Tracker responses are bencoded dictionaries.

If a tracker response has a key failure reason , then that maps to a human readable string which explains why the query failed, and no other keys are required.

Otherwise, it must have two keys: interval , which maps to the number of seconds the downloader should wait between regular rerequests, and peers.

Note that downloaders may rerequest on nonscheduled times if an event happens or they need more peers.

More commonly is that trackers return a compact representation of the peer list, see BEP If you want to make any extensions to metainfo files or tracker queries, please coordinate with Bram Cohen to make sure that all extensions are done compatibly.

It is common to announce over a UDP tracker protocol as well. Peer connections are symmetrical. Messages sent in both directions look the same, and data can flow in either direction.

The peer protocol refers to pieces of the file by index as described in the metainfo file, starting at zero.

When a peer finishes downloading a piece and checks that the hash matches, it announces that it has that piece to all of its peers. Connections contain two bits of state on either end: choked or not, and interested or not.

Choking is a notification that no data will be sent until unchoking happens. The reasoning and common techniques behind choking are explained later in this document.

Data transfer takes place whenever one side is interested and the other side is not choking. Interest state must be kept up to date at all times - whenever a downloader doesn't have something they currently would ask a peer for in unchoked, they must express lack of interest, despite being choked.

Implementing this properly is tricky, but makes it possible for downloaders to know which peers will start downloading immediately if unchoked.

Connections start out choked and not interested. When data is being transferred, downloaders should keep several piece requests queued up at once in order to get good TCP performance this is called 'pipelining'.

On the other side, requests which can't be written out to the TCP buffer immediately should be queued up in memory rather than kept in an application-level network buffer, so they can all be thrown out when a choke happens.

The peer wire protocol consists of a handshake followed by a never-ending stream of length-prefixed messages. The handshake starts with character ninteen decimal followed by the string 'BitTorrent protocol'.

The leading character is a length prefix, put there in the hope that other new protocols may do the same and thus be trivially distinguishable from each other.

All later integers sent in the protocol are encoded as four bytes big-endian. After the fixed headers come eight reserved bytes, which are all zero in all current implementations.

If you wish to extend the protocol using these bytes, please coordinate with Bram Cohen to make sure all extensions are done compatibly.

Next comes the 20 byte sha1 hash of the bencoded form of the info value from the metainfo file. If both sides don't send the same value, they sever the connection.

The one possible exception is if a downloader wants to do multiple downloads over a single port, they may wait for incoming connections to give a download hash first, and respond with the same one if it's in their list.

After the download hash comes the byte peer id which is reported in tracker requests and contained in peer lists in tracker responses.

If the receiving side's peer id doesn't match the one the initiating side expects, it severs the connection.

That's it for handshaking, next comes an alternating stream of length prefixes and messages. Messages of length zero are keepalives, and ignored.

Keepalives are generally sent once every two minutes, but note that timeouts can be done much more quickly when data is expected.

All non-keepalive messages start with a single byte which gives their type. The possible values are: 'choke', 'unchoke', 'interested', and 'not interested' have no payload.

Its payload is a bitfield with each index that downloader has sent set to one and the rest set to zero. Downloaders which don't have anything yet may skip the 'bitfield' message.

The first byte of the bitfield corresponds to indices 0 - 7 from high bit to low bit, respectively.

The next one , etc. Spare bits at the end are set to zero. The 'have' message's payload is a single number, the index which that downloader just completed and checked the hash of.

The last two are byte offsets. Length is generally a power of two unless it gets truncated by the end of the file.

They are generally only sent towards the end of a download, during what's called 'endgame mode'. When a download is almost complete, there's a tendency for the last few pieces to all be downloaded off a single hosed modem line, taking a very long time.

To make sure the last few pieces come in quickly, once requests for all pieces a given downloader doesn't have yet are currently pending, it sends requests for everything to everyone it's downloading from.

To keep this from becoming horribly inefficient, it sends cancels to everyone else every time a piece arrives.

Note that they are correlated with request messages implicitly. Downloaders generally download pieces in random order, which does a reasonably good job of keeping them from having a strict subset or superset of the pieces of any of their peers.

Choking is done for several reasons. TCP congestion control behaves very poorly when sending over many connections at once. Also, choking lets each peer use a tit-for-tat-ish algorithm to ensure that they get a consistent download rate.

The choking algorithm described below is the currently deployed one. It is very important that all new algorithms work well both in a network consisting entirely of themselves and in a network consisting mostly of this one.

There are several criteria a good choking algorithm should meet. It should cap the number of simultaneous uploads for good TCP performance.

It should avoid choking and unchoking quickly, known as 'fibrillation'. It should reciprocate to peers who let it download.

Finally, it should try out unused connections once in a while to find out if they might be better than the currently used ones, known as optimistic unchoking.

The currently deployed choking algorithm avoids fibrillation by only changing who's choked once every ten seconds. It does reciprocation and number of uploads capping by unchoking the four peers which it has the best download rates from and are interested.

Peers which have a better upload rate but aren't interested get unchoked and if they become interested the worst uploader gets choked.

If a downloader has a complete file, it uses its upload rate rather than its download rate to decide who to unchoke. For optimistic unchoking, at any one time there is a single peer which is unchoked regardless of its upload rate if interested, it counts as one of the four allowed downloaders.

Which peer is optimistically unchoked rotates every 30 seconds. To give them a decent chance of getting a complete piece to upload, new connections are three times as likely to start as the current optimistic unchoke as anywhere else in the rotation.

The BitTorrent Economics Paper outlines some request and choking algorithms clients should implement for optimal performance When developing a new implementation the Wireshark protocol analyzer and its dissectors for bittorrent can be useful to debug and compare with existing ones.

This document has been placed in the public domain. Singkat, Padat, dan Jelas Ingat bahwa perusahaan membutuhkan resume untuk mempercepat waktu mereka melakukan seleksi sebelum interview.

Oleh karena itu, waktu untuk melihat tiap resume juga sangat singkat menit sehingga resume yang kita buat harus benar benar padat dan jelas.

Untuk orang yang sudah mempunyai pengalaman kerja cukup lama, halaman masih bisa ditoleransi tetapi tetap usahakan dalam 1 halaman kecuali anda benar2 memiliki hal khusus yang perlu ditulis sebanyak itu.

Context Action Result CAR framework Ketika saya melihat resume dari beberapa orang dalam menulis pengalaman kerja, biasanya mereka hanya menulis judul dari pekerjaannya dan waktunya.

Contoh: - Sales Representative PT. Grosir Baju Indonesia - Dengan teknik penulisan seperti itu, apa yang bisa dilihat oleh perusahaan.

Perusahaan hanya tahu bahwa kita punya pengalaman menjadi sales representative selama 4 tahun dan sales supervisor selama 2 tahun di PT.

Grosir Baju Indonesia. Tetapi Perusahaan tidak akan pernah bisa melihat nilai lebih yang anda tawarkan. Ketika mereka melihat resume dari kandidat lain mereka akan melihat hal yang sama.

Bandingkan jika anda menulis seperti ini. Contoh Lain pengalaman sebagai programmer : - Membuat program akuntasi dengan cepat.

Telp, E-mail. Untuk Tempat tanggal lahir, biasanya tidak perlu dimasukkan karena orang akan sudah bisa mengetahui dari waktu anda menempuh pendidikan terakhir.

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How long did you walk your child to the door for school? Context : Macbeth is talking to the earth, in a soliloquy.

Significance : There are several possible meanings to this quote. If Macbeth is saying that sound will spoil the mood, then that is an example of metatheatre, which in a way, takes away from the gruesome details of the murder, as it somewhat breaks the forth wall and remind the listeners that Macbeth is only a character in a play.

This quote contains apostrophe, as Macbeth is talking to an inanimate object, and personification. Context : This quote is said by Macbeth to Lady Macbeth.

Macbeth had just killed Duncan, and he and Lady Macbeth are discussing what he had done. Macbeth is horrified and imagines voices that speak of his evildoings.

Macbeth will not sleep anymore. Later, Macbeth refers to himself using his three names, which could symbolize the three stages of his prophesy and his development.

Therefore, Glamis could symbolize his past self, which he was before he killed Duncan, Cawdor could symbolize his current self, which is who killed Duncan, and Macbeth could refer to his future self.

This follows the motif of three, as there were three witches and Hecate was commonly portrayed with three faces. He feels very guilty, worried, and paranoid, so much as that he believes he will never be able to sleep again.

His sleep will disappear along with his innocence, as sleep is depicted as innocent and good. The witches punish people with lack of sleep, such as when they punished the sailor whose wife was mean with a lack of sleep.

This quote contains many metaphors. Context : This quote is said by Ross to an old man. They exchanging accounts of recent unnatural happenings.

It is the morning after Macbeth killed Duncan. Meaning : According to the clock, it is day, but darkness blocks the sun.

Is it dark because night has become more powerful than day, or because day is hiding its face in shame? People at this time believed that social standing was determined by God, so trying to usurp someone to put yourself in their place goes against the natural order of things.

Kings were believed to also have been chosen by divine powers, so killing and usurping Duncan was especially heinous. The falcon could be representing King Duncan, while the owl, a bird often attributed to death, could represent witchcraft; therefore, this could be saying that witchcraft has killed Duncan.

Also, night, which can represent evil, is taking over day, which is good and supposed to be predominate. This quote contains personification and metaphors.

Context : Macbeth is talking to himself, in a soliloquy. I have ruined my peace for their benefit and given my soul to the devil to make them, the sons on Banquo, kings.

Instead of letting that happen, let fate come to the arena and fight me to the death. Macbeth, who committed evil deeds, will be punished, while Banquo, who has been good and loyal to the king, will be rewarded.

This quote also contains personification and metaphors. Context : Macbeth is speaking to Lady Macbeth. Meaning : We have hurt the snake, but have not killed it.

It is better to be with the dead, whom we have killed and put to rest in order to secure our peace, than to lie with tortured minds in a frenzy of sleeplessness.

He decides that he rather destroy the world than continue to live in fear, which indicates the reign of terror that Scotland will fall under.

Simply choose your favorite and get started. Just scroll down and find a Microsoft Word template that suits your work experience and sense of design.

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So have fun, and pick one that suits your sense of design. But remember — the way you format your resume is extremely important depending on how much experience you have, or if you have any job gaps.

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Washington Brick Red. Murray Dark Blue. Trump Brick Red. Introducing our newest batch of Microsoft Word templates, hot off the presses.

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Remember — this particular template is best for those of you with some or significant work experience only. Template Library 4: Creative Layouts.

Brooklyn Bridge Black. Taj Mahal Dark Blue. White House Brick Red. Empire State Gray. Mount Rushmore Dark Blue. Are you having trouble separating yourself from your competitors?

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Job Hopper Original. Mid-Level Dark Blue. Career Changer Brick Red. Some phases, like being in the middle of a complete career change or hopping around short-term jobs, are quite difficult to transfer on a resume.

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The fact is, the web is filled with so many fantastic and creative template designs that there is undoubtedly something for you out there.

Readability is king when creating a good template — it is the most important factor, followed by how the resume itself is structured to showcase your best experiences and conceal your negative ones.

Creating your own is fine, too. Wrong again. Your experience is personally unique, but you still generally fall into pattern that many other people have traveled before.

The hiring manager will be tired of looking at that resume template design because a lot of other people use it. That hiring manager should be fired.

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Should i include collegiate sports in my resume? And if so where? It depends how much professional experience you have.

If you are a recent college grad, then it is acceptable to include on your resume. Good luck on the job hunt! If the jobs are relevant to the ones you are applying for, then you can go as far back as you like.

Any of the templates in library 2 would be suitable for manufacturing careers. Best of luck!

Multiple employers with jobs lasting two to three years each. The jobs have been similar, so the experience looks a bit repetitive.

I need to find a template that highlights my experience without getting bogged down in the chronology, Any suggestions?

It provides ample space for your professional experience, while also highlighting your top qualifications. How would I write that on my resume?

Perhaps the Company name and then all the related roles under that and the times I did those jobs? I was always the Executive Admin, but I did other jobs during that period.

Yes, your suggestion is correct. Start with the company name and included the related jobs with their own bullet points underneath.

Good luck! Ive never had a job so what should I use? Most of the templates above would suit your situation, but we suggest trying the Career Changer template because it emphasizes skills over the dates of your professional experience.

Good luck with grad school! Hope this helps! Good luck with the internship! Good Day Resume Genius. The skill I know is more on the medical.

What template should I use? Which is good for cabin crew applicant? I have no many work experience in service.

So i want to highlight the other things. Which template would you recommend for a career in education? Best of luck on the promotion!

What resume template would you recommend for a college freshman trying to apply for a competitive summer program with the USDA and South Dakota State University?

Good luck with the summer program. Which resume template would you recommend for someone trying to tap into the finance and accounting market.

Looking for an entry-level position. Good luck with the job hunt. Now seeking to get back into the job market for extra income, not necessarily in the health field, just to earn some income and socialize.

What resume do you suggest? Good luck with your job search! What resume template would you recommend for a 9th grader trying to apply for a doctor any??

Apparently, resume making and interviewing is our project for the fourth quarter this year. Good luck on your project.

Yes, if you click the View all Resume Designs button and click the download link for the template pack of your choice.

Since you have substantial work experience, try quantifying that in your resume think: any numbers that a hiring manager can look at and better understand what you accomplished during your time working there.

Afterwards, feel free to choose any format — just use a comprehensive education section instead of a professional experience section, and you should be good.

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The rich are the big gainers in America's new prosperity. Add this article to your reading list by clicking this button.

The gap between rich and poor is bigger than in any other advanced country, but most people are unconcerned.

Whereas Europeans fret about the way the economic pie is divided, Americans want to join the rich, not soak them. Eight out of ten, more than anywhere else, believe that though you may start poor, if you work hard, you can make pots of money.

It is a central part of the American Dream. Thanks to a jump in productivity growth after , America's economy has outpaced other rich countries' for a decade.

In the late s everybody shared in this boom. Though incomes were rising fastest at the top, all workers' wages far outpaced inflation.

But after something changed. The pace of productivity growth has been rising again, but now it seems to be lifting fewer boats.

If you take into account the value of employee benefits, such as health care, the contrast is a little less stark.

But, whatever the measure, it seems clear that only the most skilled workers have seen their pay packets swell much in the current economic expansion.

The fruits of productivity gains have been skewed towards the highest earners, and towards companies, whose profits have reached record levels as a share of GDP.

Even in a country that tolerates inequality, political consequences follow when the rising tide raises too few boats. The impact of stagnant wages has been dulled by rising house prices, but still most Americans are unhappy about the economy.

The White House professes to be untroubled. He is right, but his claim is misleading, since the median worker—the one in the middle of the income range—has done less well than the average, whose gains are pulled up by the big increases of those at the top.

Privately, some policymakers admit that the recent trends have them worried, and not just because of the congressional elections in November.

The statistics suggest that the economic boom may fade. Americans still head to the shops with gusto, but it is falling savings rates and rising debts made possible by high house prices , not real income growth, that keep their wallets open.

A bust of some kind could lead to widespread political disaffection. Eventually, the country's social fabric could stretch.

America is nowhere near Brazil yet see chart 1. Despite a quarter century during which incomes have drifted ever farther apart, the distribution of wealth has remained remarkably stable.

The richest Americans now earn as big a share of overall income as they did a century ago see chart 2 , but their share of overall wealth is much lower.

Indeed, it has barely budged in the few past decades. The elites in the early years of the 20th century were living off the income generated by their accumulated fortunes.

Today's rich, by and large, are earning their money. The rise of the working rich reinforces America's self-image as the land of opportunity.

But, by some measures, that image is an illusion. In America about half of the income disparities in one generation are reflected in the next.

In Canada and the Nordic countries that proportion is about a fifth. It is not clear whether this sclerosis is increasing: the evidence is mixed.

Many studies suggest that mobility between generations has stayed roughly the same in recent decades, and some suggest it is decreasing.

Even so, ordinary Americans seem to believe that theirs is still a land of opportunity. The proportion who think you can start poor and end up rich has risen 20 percentage points since That helps explain why voters who grumble about the economy have nonetheless failed to respond to class politics.

Americans tend to blame their woes not on rich compatriots but on poor foreigners. More than six out of ten are sceptical of free trade.

A new poll in Foreign Affairs suggests that almost nine out of ten worry about their jobs going offshore.

Congressmen reflect their concerns. Though the economy grows, many have become vociferous protectionists. Other rich countries are watching America's experience closely.

For many Europeans, America's brand of capitalism is already far too unequal. Such sceptics will be sure to make much of any sign that the broad middle-class reaps scant benefit from the current productivity boom, setting back the course of European reform even further.

The conventional tale is that the changes of the past few years are simply more steps along paths that began to diverge for rich and poor in the Reagan era.

During the s and s, the halcyon days for America's middle class, productivity boomed and its benefits were broadly shared. The gap between the lowest and highest earners narrowed.

After the oil shocks, productivity growth suddenly slowed. A few years later, at the start of the s, the gap between rich and poor began to widen.

The exact size of that gap depends on how you measure it. Look at wages, the main source of income for most people, and you understate the importance of health care and other benefits.

Look at household income and you need to take into account that the typical household has fallen in size in recent decades, thanks to the growth in single-parent families.

Look at statistics on spending and you find that the gaps between top and bottom have widened less than for income.

But every measure shows that, over the past quarter century, those at the top have done better than those in the middle, who in turn have outpaced those at the bottom.

The gains of productivity growth have become increasingly skewed. If all Americans were set on a ladder with ten rungs, the gap between the wages of those on the ninth rung and those on the first has risen by a third since Economists have long debated why America's income disparities suddenly widened after The consensus is that the main cause was technology, which increased the demand for skilled workers relative to their supply, with freer trade reinforcing the effect.

Some evidence suggests that institutional changes, particularly the weakening of unions, made the going harder for people at the bottom.

Whether these shifts were good or bad depends on your political persuasion. Those on the left lament the gaps, often forgetting that the greater income disparities have created bigger incentives to get an education, which has led to a better trained, more productive workforce.

In their haste to applaud or lament this tale, both sides of the debate tend to overlook some nuances. First, America's rising inequality has not, in fact, been continuous.

The gap between the bottom and the middle—whether in terms of skills, age, job experience or income—did widen sharply in the s.

But during the s, particularly towards the end of the decade, that gap stabilised and, by some measures, even narrowed.

Real wages rose faster for the bottom quarter of workers than for those in the middle. After most people lost ground, but, by many measures, those in the middle of the skills and education ladder have been hit relatively harder than those at the bottom.

People who had some college experience, but no degree, fared worse than high-school dropouts. Some statistics suggest that the annual income of Americans with a college degree has fallen relative to that of high-school graduates for the first time in decades.

So, whereas the s were hardest on the lowest skilled, the s and this decade have squeezed people in the middle. The one truly continuous trend over the past 25 years has been towards greater concentration of income at the very top.

The scale of this shift is not visible from most popular measures of income or wages, as they do not break the distribution down finely enough.

But several recent studies have dissected tax records to investigate what goes on at the very top.

The figures are startling. Put these pieces together and you do not have a picture of ever-widening inequality but of what Lawrence Katz of Harvard University, David Autor of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and Melissa Kearney of the Brookings Institution call a polarisation of the labour market.

The bottom is no longer falling behind, the top is soaring ahead and the middle is under pressure. Can changes in technology explain this revised picture?

Up to a point. Computers and the internet have reduced the demand for routine jobs that demand only moderate skills, such as the work of bank clerks, while increasing the productivity of the highest-skilled.

Studies in Britain and Germany as well as America show that the pace of job growth since the early s has been slower in occupations that are easy to computerise.

For the most talented and skilled, technology has increased the potential market and thus their productivity.

Top entertainers or sportsmen, for instance, now perform for a global audience. Some economists believe that technology also explains the soaring pay of chief executives.

One argument is that information technology has made top managers more mobile, since it no longer takes years to master the intricacies of any one industry.

As a result, the market for chief executives is bigger and their pay is bid up. Global firms plainly do compete globally for talent: Alcoa's boss is a Brazilian, Sony's chief executive is American and Welsh.

But the scale of America's income concentration at the top, and the fact that no other country has seen such extreme shifts, has sent people searching for other causes.

The typical American chief executive now earns times the average wage, up tenfold from the s. Continental Europe's bosses have seen nothing similar.

Whichever explanation you choose for the signs of growing inequality, none of the changes seems transitory.

The middle rungs of America's labour market are likely to become ever more squeezed. And that squeeze feels worse thanks to another change that has hit the middle class most: greater fluctuations in people's incomes.

The overall economy has become more stable over the past quarter century. America has had only two recessions in the past 20 years, in and , both of which were mild by historical standards.

But life has become more turbulent for firms and people's income now fluctuates much more from one year to the next than it did a generation ago.

Some evidence suggests that the trends in short-term income volatility mirror the underlying wage shifts and may now be hitting the middle class most.

What of the future? It is possible that the benign pattern of the late s will return. The disappointing performance of the Bush era may simply reflect a job market that is weaker than it appears.

Although unemployment is low, at 4. More likely, the structural changes in America's job market that began in the s are now being reinforced by big changes in the global economy.

The integration of China's low-skilled millions and the increased offshoring of services to India and other countries has expanded the global supply of workers.

This has reduced the relative price of labour and raised the returns to capital. That reinforces the income concentration at the top, since most stocks and shares are held by richer people.

More important, globalisation may further fracture the traditional link between skills and wages. As Frank Levy of MIT points out, offshoring and technology work in tandem, since both dampen the demand for jobs that can be reduced to a set of rules or scripts, whether those jobs are for book-keepers or call-centre workers.

Alan Blinder of Princeton, by contrast, says that the demand for skills depends on whether they must be used in person: X -rays taken in Boston may be read by Indians in Bangalore, but offices cannot be cleaned at long distance.

So who will be squeezed and who will not is hard to predict. The number of American service jobs that have shifted offshore is small, some 1m at the most.

And most of those demand few skills, such as operating telephones. Mr Levy points out that only 15 radiologists in India are now reading American X -rays.

But nine out of ten Americans worry about offshoring. That fear may be enough to hold down the wages of college graduates in service industries.

All in all, America's income distribution is likely to continue the trends of the recent past. While those at the top will go on drawing huge salaries, those in the broad middle of the middle class will see their incomes churned.

The political consequences will depend on the pace of change and the economy's general health. With luck, the offshoring of services will happen gradually, allowing time for workers to adapt their skills while strong growth will keep employment high.

But if the economy slows, Americans' scepticism of globalisation is sure to rise. And even their famous tolerance of inequality may reach a limit.

Inequality and the American Dream. The world's most impressive economic machine needs a little adjusting.

A hidden industry has changed all our lives; but some companies are operating rather close to the. The battle for Arcelor is about more than steel.

It is time to look rationally at the idea of resuming whaling. There is no easy path towards peace, but Hamas cannot yet be wished away.

America's war for hearts and minds. A little politeness goes a long way. Of meat, Mexicans and social mobility. Among the very poor, the American Dream is alive and well.

The public buys its own campaigns, thank you very much. A Democratic candidate in sand-coloured combat boots. A sudden rush of better news, and not entirely fortuitous.

Should the dwellings of the poorest be rebuilt at all? A story especially for those not watching the football. Violent crime appears to have stopped falling.

Democrats have growing worries about the front-runner for the presidential nomination. But can they.

The public sector in Latin America is not spending enough on transport, electricity and water, but.

Fidel Castro declares war on corruption. Roberto Lavagna edges towards a presidential candidacy.

The rising sun leaves some Japanese in the shade. An emotional debate about those untouched by the economic recovery. But the president should survive.

Chinese propaganda just isn't what it used to be. The remarkable but little-discussed story of the world's most durable monarch.

A sad case of post-prime-ministerial syndrome. John Howard blocks Canberra's gay marriages. The Palestinians' Hamas government is increasingly besieged.

But it is clinging to power, and to its. The prime minister's good start. The message from Russia and China. An odd saga with Armenians has mocked the government.

Zambia has managed to avoid the crises plaguing its neighbours. Russian worries about Western encirclement are premature.

After the Catalans, Basques and Andalusians want autonomy too. Locals dream of reopening the frontier between Turkey and Armenia.

The ruins of a contested capital are still hostage to geopolitics. The annual report of the European Union as a club. Labour has focused too much on benefits and not enough on work.

The devil in the details. Not everyone who claims to. How to keep the Tube cool. The world's biggest civil IT project has not yet convinced Britain's doctors.

Company pension funds are being saved from destruction. How changes in the market have revived an ancient Egyptian art.

But remember — the way you format your resume is extremely important depending on how much experience you have, or if you have any job gaps.

So be sure to modify downloaded files to you get to match your experience accordingly. Template Library 3: Professional Profile Layouts.

Washington Brick Red. Murray Dark Blue. Trump Brick Red. Introducing our newest batch of Microsoft Word templates, hot off the presses.

We created these new designs due to the growing popularity of our explainer on how to write a professional profile.

People interested in a layout featuring a PP introduction skyrocketed, so we toiled to create 8 brand new HR-approved documents for you to download for free.

Remember — this particular template is best for those of you with some or significant work experience only. Template Library 4: Creative Layouts.

Brooklyn Bridge Black. Taj Mahal Dark Blue. White House Brick Red. Empire State Gray. Mount Rushmore Dark Blue.

Are you having trouble separating yourself from your competitors? Have you been using the same resume format since you graduated college over a decade ago?

Then it might be time to add some style to your resume! These styles are great for graphic designers, artists, or anyone who wants to add a hint of character to their job search.

Job Hopper Original. Mid-Level Dark Blue. Career Changer Brick Red. Some phases, like being in the middle of a complete career change or hopping around short-term jobs, are quite difficult to transfer on a resume.

Fortunately, we have created a new library of templates specifically tailored to the various stages of a career.

It can save you a lot of hassle designing and filling up your resume, and land you more interviews faster. Not Sure Which Template to Choose?

The answer is yes — if you want to. Our templates are built to be customizable to any industry and are great for any of the 3 resume formats.

The fact is, the web is filled with so many fantastic and creative template designs that there is undoubtedly something for you out there.

Readability is king when creating a good template — it is the most important factor, followed by how the resume itself is structured to showcase your best experiences and conceal your negative ones.

Creating your own is fine, too. Wrong again. Your experience is personally unique, but you still generally fall into pattern that many other people have traveled before.

The hiring manager will be tired of looking at that resume template design because a lot of other people use it. That hiring manager should be fired.

We hope that clears up any misconceptions you may have had. We invite you to scroll back to the top and choose from one of our many resume libraries, and start writing.

Should i include collegiate sports in my resume? And if so where? It depends how much professional experience you have. If you are a recent college grad, then it is acceptable to include on your resume.

Good luck on the job hunt! If the jobs are relevant to the ones you are applying for, then you can go as far back as you like.

Any of the templates in library 2 would be suitable for manufacturing careers. Best of luck! Multiple employers with jobs lasting two to three years each.

The jobs have been similar, so the experience looks a bit repetitive. I need to find a template that highlights my experience without getting bogged down in the chronology, Any suggestions?

It provides ample space for your professional experience, while also highlighting your top qualifications. How would I write that on my resume?

Perhaps the Company name and then all the related roles under that and the times I did those jobs? I was always the Executive Admin, but I did other jobs during that period.

Yes, your suggestion is correct. Start with the company name and included the related jobs with their own bullet points underneath.

Good luck! Ive never had a job so what should I use? Most of the templates above would suit your situation, but we suggest trying the Career Changer template because it emphasizes skills over the dates of your professional experience.

Good luck with grad school! Hope this helps! Good luck with the internship! Good Day Resume Genius. The skill I know is more on the medical.

What template should I use? Which is good for cabin crew applicant? I have no many work experience in service. So i want to highlight the other things.

Which template would you recommend for a career in education? Best of luck on the promotion! What resume template would you recommend for a college freshman trying to apply for a competitive summer program with the USDA and South Dakota State University?

Good luck with the summer program. Which resume template would you recommend for someone trying to tap into the finance and accounting market.

Looking for an entry-level position. Good luck with the job hunt. Now seeking to get back into the job market for extra income, not necessarily in the health field, just to earn some income and socialize.

What resume do you suggest? Good luck with your job search! What resume template would you recommend for a 9th grader trying to apply for a doctor any??

Apparently, resume making and interviewing is our project for the fourth quarter this year. Good luck on your project.

Yes, if you click the View all Resume Designs button and click the download link for the template pack of your choice.

Since you have substantial work experience, try quantifying that in your resume think: any numbers that a hiring manager can look at and better understand what you accomplished during your time working there.

Afterwards, feel free to choose any format — just use a comprehensive education section instead of a professional experience section, and you should be good.

Good luck landing that internship! Get awesome job opportunities sent directly to your inbox. Think you can judge the quality of a resume within 6 seconds?

The answer may surprise you. Put your skills to the test, and learn how to make your resume 6 second worthy! There are tons of errors throughout.

See why. How to Modify and Maximize your Resume Template. Need a resume template? Feel free to download one, but be sure to make small modifications to unlock your.

Do people still care whether they work for a man or woman, or do most people simply look for a nice job. Resume Builder Comparison Resume Genius vs.

LinkedIn Labs. What are the differences between the major online resume builders? Here's an in depth analysis of what.

Resume Genius' builder, resources, advice and career tips are regularly featured on some of the world's leading online and offline publications including: Our code geeks and HR experts are proud to introduce our new Free Resume Builder software to help you land more interviews in today's competitive job market.

The rich are the big gainers in America's new prosperity. Add this article to your reading list by clicking this button. The gap between rich and poor is bigger than in any other advanced country, but most people are unconcerned.

Whereas Europeans fret about the way the economic pie is divided, Americans want to join the rich, not soak them. Eight out of ten, more than anywhere else, believe that though you may start poor, if you work hard, you can make pots of money.

It is a central part of the American Dream. Thanks to a jump in productivity growth after , America's economy has outpaced other rich countries' for a decade.

In the late s everybody shared in this boom. Though incomes were rising fastest at the top, all workers' wages far outpaced inflation.

But after something changed. The pace of productivity growth has been rising again, but now it seems to be lifting fewer boats.

If you take into account the value of employee benefits, such as health care, the contrast is a little less stark.

But, whatever the measure, it seems clear that only the most skilled workers have seen their pay packets swell much in the current economic expansion.

The fruits of productivity gains have been skewed towards the highest earners, and towards companies, whose profits have reached record levels as a share of GDP.

Even in a country that tolerates inequality, political consequences follow when the rising tide raises too few boats.

The impact of stagnant wages has been dulled by rising house prices, but still most Americans are unhappy about the economy.

The White House professes to be untroubled. He is right, but his claim is misleading, since the median worker—the one in the middle of the income range—has done less well than the average, whose gains are pulled up by the big increases of those at the top.

Privately, some policymakers admit that the recent trends have them worried, and not just because of the congressional elections in November.

The statistics suggest that the economic boom may fade. Americans still head to the shops with gusto, but it is falling savings rates and rising debts made possible by high house prices , not real income growth, that keep their wallets open.

A bust of some kind could lead to widespread political disaffection. Eventually, the country's social fabric could stretch.

America is nowhere near Brazil yet see chart 1. Despite a quarter century during which incomes have drifted ever farther apart, the distribution of wealth has remained remarkably stable.

The richest Americans now earn as big a share of overall income as they did a century ago see chart 2 , but their share of overall wealth is much lower.

Indeed, it has barely budged in the few past decades. The elites in the early years of the 20th century were living off the income generated by their accumulated fortunes.

Today's rich, by and large, are earning their money. The rise of the working rich reinforces America's self-image as the land of opportunity.

But, by some measures, that image is an illusion. In America about half of the income disparities in one generation are reflected in the next.

In Canada and the Nordic countries that proportion is about a fifth. It is not clear whether this sclerosis is increasing: the evidence is mixed.

Many studies suggest that mobility between generations has stayed roughly the same in recent decades, and some suggest it is decreasing.

Even so, ordinary Americans seem to believe that theirs is still a land of opportunity. The proportion who think you can start poor and end up rich has risen 20 percentage points since That helps explain why voters who grumble about the economy have nonetheless failed to respond to class politics.

Americans tend to blame their woes not on rich compatriots but on poor foreigners. More than six out of ten are sceptical of free trade.

A new poll in Foreign Affairs suggests that almost nine out of ten worry about their jobs going offshore. Congressmen reflect their concerns.

Though the economy grows, many have become vociferous protectionists. Other rich countries are watching America's experience closely.

For many Europeans, America's brand of capitalism is already far too unequal. Such sceptics will be sure to make much of any sign that the broad middle-class reaps scant benefit from the current productivity boom, setting back the course of European reform even further.

The conventional tale is that the changes of the past few years are simply more steps along paths that began to diverge for rich and poor in the Reagan era.

During the s and s, the halcyon days for America's middle class, productivity boomed and its benefits were broadly shared. The gap between the lowest and highest earners narrowed.

After the oil shocks, productivity growth suddenly slowed. A few years later, at the start of the s, the gap between rich and poor began to widen.

The exact size of that gap depends on how you measure it. Look at wages, the main source of income for most people, and you understate the importance of health care and other benefits.

Look at household income and you need to take into account that the typical household has fallen in size in recent decades, thanks to the growth in single-parent families.

Look at statistics on spending and you find that the gaps between top and bottom have widened less than for income. But every measure shows that, over the past quarter century, those at the top have done better than those in the middle, who in turn have outpaced those at the bottom.

The gains of productivity growth have become increasingly skewed. If all Americans were set on a ladder with ten rungs, the gap between the wages of those on the ninth rung and those on the first has risen by a third since Economists have long debated why America's income disparities suddenly widened after The consensus is that the main cause was technology, which increased the demand for skilled workers relative to their supply, with freer trade reinforcing the effect.

Some evidence suggests that institutional changes, particularly the weakening of unions, made the going harder for people at the bottom.

Whether these shifts were good or bad depends on your political persuasion. Those on the left lament the gaps, often forgetting that the greater income disparities have created bigger incentives to get an education, which has led to a better trained, more productive workforce.

In their haste to applaud or lament this tale, both sides of the debate tend to overlook some nuances.

First, America's rising inequality has not, in fact, been continuous. The gap between the bottom and the middle—whether in terms of skills, age, job experience or income—did widen sharply in the s.

But during the s, particularly towards the end of the decade, that gap stabilised and, by some measures, even narrowed.

Real wages rose faster for the bottom quarter of workers than for those in the middle. After most people lost ground, but, by many measures, those in the middle of the skills and education ladder have been hit relatively harder than those at the bottom.

People who had some college experience, but no degree, fared worse than high-school dropouts. Some statistics suggest that the annual income of Americans with a college degree has fallen relative to that of high-school graduates for the first time in decades.

So, whereas the s were hardest on the lowest skilled, the s and this decade have squeezed people in the middle. The one truly continuous trend over the past 25 years has been towards greater concentration of income at the very top.

The scale of this shift is not visible from most popular measures of income or wages, as they do not break the distribution down finely enough.

But several recent studies have dissected tax records to investigate what goes on at the very top. The figures are startling. Put these pieces together and you do not have a picture of ever-widening inequality but of what Lawrence Katz of Harvard University, David Autor of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and Melissa Kearney of the Brookings Institution call a polarisation of the labour market.

The bottom is no longer falling behind, the top is soaring ahead and the middle is under pressure.

Can changes in technology explain this revised picture? Up to a point. Computers and the internet have reduced the demand for routine jobs that demand only moderate skills, such as the work of bank clerks, while increasing the productivity of the highest-skilled.

Studies in Britain and Germany as well as America show that the pace of job growth since the early s has been slower in occupations that are easy to computerise.

For the most talented and skilled, technology has increased the potential market and thus their productivity. Top entertainers or sportsmen, for instance, now perform for a global audience.

Some economists believe that technology also explains the soaring pay of chief executives. One argument is that information technology has made top managers more mobile, since it no longer takes years to master the intricacies of any one industry.

As a result, the market for chief executives is bigger and their pay is bid up. Global firms plainly do compete globally for talent: Alcoa's boss is a Brazilian, Sony's chief executive is American and Welsh.

But the scale of America's income concentration at the top, and the fact that no other country has seen such extreme shifts, has sent people searching for other causes.

The typical American chief executive now earns times the average wage, up tenfold from the s. Continental Europe's bosses have seen nothing similar.

Whichever explanation you choose for the signs of growing inequality, none of the changes seems transitory.

The middle rungs of America's labour market are likely to become ever more squeezed. And that squeeze feels worse thanks to another change that has hit the middle class most: greater fluctuations in people's incomes.

The overall economy has become more stable over the past quarter century. America has had only two recessions in the past 20 years, in and , both of which were mild by historical standards.

But life has become more turbulent for firms and people's income now fluctuates much more from one year to the next than it did a generation ago.

Some evidence suggests that the trends in short-term income volatility mirror the underlying wage shifts and may now be hitting the middle class most.

What of the future? It is possible that the benign pattern of the late s will return. The disappointing performance of the Bush era may simply reflect a job market that is weaker than it appears.

Although unemployment is low, at 4. More likely, the structural changes in America's job market that began in the s are now being reinforced by big changes in the global economy.

The integration of China's low-skilled millions and the increased offshoring of services to India and other countries has expanded the global supply of workers.

This has reduced the relative price of labour and raised the returns to capital. That reinforces the income concentration at the top, since most stocks and shares are held by richer people.

More important, globalisation may further fracture the traditional link between skills and wages.

As Frank Levy of MIT points out, offshoring and technology work in tandem, since both dampen the demand for jobs that can be reduced to a set of rules or scripts, whether those jobs are for book-keepers or call-centre workers.

Alan Blinder of Princeton, by contrast, says that the demand for skills depends on whether they must be used in person: X -rays taken in Boston may be read by Indians in Bangalore, but offices cannot be cleaned at long distance.

So who will be squeezed and who will not is hard to predict. The number of American service jobs that have shifted offshore is small, some 1m at the most.

And most of those demand few skills, such as operating telephones. Mr Levy points out that only 15 radiologists in India are now reading American X -rays.

But nine out of ten Americans worry about offshoring. That fear may be enough to hold down the wages of college graduates in service industries.

All in all, America's income distribution is likely to continue the trends of the recent past. While those at the top will go on drawing huge salaries, those in the broad middle of the middle class will see their incomes churned.

The political consequences will depend on the pace of change and the economy's general health.

With luck, the offshoring of services will happen gradually, allowing time for workers to adapt their skills while strong growth will keep employment high.

But if the economy slows, Americans' scepticism of globalisation is sure to rise. And even their famous tolerance of inequality may reach a limit.

Inequality and the American Dream. The world's most impressive economic machine needs a little adjusting. A hidden industry has changed all our lives; but some companies are operating rather close to the.

The battle for Arcelor is about more than steel. It is time to look rationally at the idea of resuming whaling. There is no easy path towards peace, but Hamas cannot yet be wished away.

America's war for hearts and minds. A little politeness goes a long way. Of meat, Mexicans and social mobility. Among the very poor, the American Dream is alive and well.

The public buys its own campaigns, thank you very much. A Democratic candidate in sand-coloured combat boots.

A sudden rush of better news, and not entirely fortuitous. Should the dwellings of the poorest be rebuilt at all? A story especially for those not watching the football.

Violent crime appears to have stopped falling. Democrats have growing worries about the front-runner for the presidential nomination. But can they.

The public sector in Latin America is not spending enough on transport, electricity and water, but. Fidel Castro declares war on corruption.

Roberto Lavagna edges towards a presidential candidacy. The rising sun leaves some Japanese in the shade.

An emotional debate about those untouched by the economic recovery. But the president should survive. Chinese propaganda just isn't what it used to be.

The remarkable but little-discussed story of the world's most durable monarch. A sad case of post-prime-ministerial syndrome.

John Howard blocks Canberra's gay marriages. The Palestinians' Hamas government is increasingly besieged. But it is clinging to power, and to its.

The prime minister's good start. The message from Russia and China. An odd saga with Armenians has mocked the government.

Zambia has managed to avoid the crises plaguing its neighbours. Russian worries about Western encirclement are premature. After the Catalans, Basques and Andalusians want autonomy too.

Locals dream of reopening the frontier between Turkey and Armenia. The ruins of a contested capital are still hostage to geopolitics.

The annual report of the European Union as a club. Labour has focused too much on benefits and not enough on work. The devil in the details.

Not everyone who claims to. How to keep the Tube cool. The world's biggest civil IT project has not yet convinced Britain's doctors.

Company pension funds are being saved from destruction. How changes in the market have revived an ancient Egyptian art.

The limits of compassionate conservatism. Philosophical consistency is not David Cameron's priority.

Companies are having to find new ways. Like information on the internet, goods are moving around the world with ever greater efficiency.

How three large and successful companies are using their supply chains to compete. As distinctions between ownership and control become blurred, supply chains are getting more twisted.

With more and more stuff being moved around the globe, efficiency is at a premium. Winging it to the pot. Delivery companies are consolidating.

A courier company goes online. Being too lean and mean is a dangerous thing. Google dominates the lucrative market for web-search, but its rivals are setting out to change that.

A pioneering blogger moves on to the next big thing. Two historic German drugs firms scrap for control of a third.

Airbus's jumbo-sized problem threatens the firm's future. Mittal Steel's chances of taking over Arcelor are improving. A turning point in relations between company owners and bosses?

Doing business in a lawless part of Italy. Wind power has propelled Tulsi Tanti into the ranks of India's corporate titans.

America's Treasury market is unsettled by inflation, in another jittery week for the world's. The future of the central bank's governor is in doubt.

Why it pays to become America's treasury secretary. A sign that times are good in the overlooked world of accountants. Securitising intellectual property.

Companies are borrowing against their copyrights, trademarks and patents. The World Bank reveals what it thinks of its clients.

Tackling unemployment requires a careful mixture of policies. America's most famous weapons laboratory is under new management.

The reason HIV is so virulent may have been found. Evidence that Prozac stops people committing suicide. Amid controversy over immigration and the proper role of ethnography, Jacques Chirac prepares to.

The challenges of starting a business in China can be clearly seen from the experiences of two. Next in Economic and financial indicators.

The Economist commodity price index. Next in Emerging-Market Indicators. Democracy in America October 6th, Graphic detail October 6th, Prospero October 6th, Erasmus October 6th, Game theory October 6th, International October 6th, Take our weekly news quiz to stay on top of the headlines.

Full Professor W3 and Chair for Biochemistry. Research topic: Molecular signaling mechanisms in aging and aging-related diseases.

Ruhr-University Bochum, Dept. Physiological Chemistry, Jun. Research topic: Structural and biochemical studies on the regulation of signaling enzymes in aging and disease.

Research Topic: Structural studies on intracellular signaling systems. Thesis Advisor: Professor Robert Huber.

Diploma M. Awards and other responsibilities. Molecular signalling mechanisms in aging and disease. Li, Jun; Bonkowski, Michael S.

In: Science Bd. In: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry Bd. In: PLoS biology Bd. In: Nature Chemical Biology Bd. Gertz, Melanie; Steegborn, Clemens.

Lawrence; Lo, Donald C. In: Cell Chemical Biology Bd. Fraser; Levin, Lonny R. In: Autophagy Bd. In: Scientific Reports Bd.

Suenkel, Benjamin; Steegborn, Clemens. In: Methods in Enzymology Bd. In: ChemBioChem Bd. Schweizer, Ulrich; Steegborn, Clemens.

In: Journal of Molecular Endocrinology Bd. In: ChemMedChem Bd. In: Proteomics Bd. In: Nature Communications Bd.

Suhre, Michael H. In: Molecular Cell Bd. In: Journal of Structural Biology Bd. In: Aging Bd. In: Bioscience Reports Bd. In: Journal of Molecular Biology Bd.

In: Frontiers in Pharmacology Bd. In: Proteins Bd. Lakshminarasimhan, Mahadevan; Steegborn, Clemens. In: Experimental Gerontology Bd.

In: Cell Cycle Bd. Baur, Joseph A. Hall, Rebecca A. Innocenti, Alessio; Hall, Rebecca A. Schlicker, Christine; Hall, Rebecca A.

Supuran, Claudiu T. Hoboken, NJ : Wiley, In: Biochemistry Bd. Garzia, Livia; D'Angelo, A. In: Oncogene Bd. In: Biochemical Journal Bd.

In: Eukaryotic Cell Bd. Steegborn, Clemens; Litvin, Tatiana N. Augustin, Martin A. In: Biological Chemistry Bd.

Xu, Guozhou; Rich, Rebecca L. Stabler, Sally P. In: Metabolism Bd. In: Human Molecular Genetics Bd. In: Structure Bd. Clausen, Tim; Kaiser, Jens T.

In: Molecular microbiology Bd. Clausen, Tim; Wahl, Markus C. In: Biosensors and Bioelectronics Bd. Metzger, Armin U.

In: Nucleic Acids Research Bd. This manuscript represents one of the earliest manuscripts of the Key of Solomon Clavicula Salomonis , dated Mathers places his earliest manuscript, the Latin MS Add.

The present manuscript is in English and occasionally Latin, with orations in Latin. Its most notable characteristics are the strong Christian elements not found in the Colorno class of manuscripts.

Although it has many parallels with two other English manuscripts, Additional Ms. Rather, it appears to be an independent translation, probably from the Latin.

By contrast, Add. MS , Sl. The drawing shows this with a curved blade, distinct from but similar to the black-handled and white-handled knives "cuttellus niger" and "cuttellus albus".

Other manuscripts show it drawn more like a sickle. Mathers' translation from Add. The term evidently derives from the Latin word artavus quill knife or penknife.

A book by this name is also mentioned in Weyer's Pseudomonarchia Daemonum cf, 36 Gaap. Lylet, per honorem patris tui Arieth.

Catalogue entries as follows: For convenience, I have taken the liberty of copying the Table of Contents for Book 2 to the beginning of this transcript.

I have also amended it, since it does not actually agree with the layout of the text. The unamended version remains at the beginning of Book 2.

Salomon the Wise. Called his Clauicle Reuealed. The fumigation of is Saffron. Toward y e South. Nastegon, Sexagip. Truly copyed verbum pro.

Christo Roboam sayd what haue I deserued, why should I in any case be likned to my father. I pray god that y t he desireth may neuer come to passe and effect; and as Ptolomeus the grecian coaduanced by the grace of god hath made cleare the profound and obscure secrets of this arte, as he was that y t foloweth, that were closed in the cheast of Iuory, and these be the words of y e said Clauicle that he declared marueilously in these two Bookes followinge.

Heare beginneth the rubrice of y e 2 d Book. Adiuva me exaudi in quacunque die invocauero ne derelinquas me domine Ihesu Christe et per tuam immensam miserecordiam ne dissesseris a me, intende in adiutorium meum domine deus salutis mee, iudues me domine Ihesu Christe viscem misericordie tue, et voluntatem, benignitatem, prudentiam, iusticiam, fortitudinem temperantiam, modestam patientiam, concordiam, pacem et in hijs omnibus perseuerantiam et castitatem tribuere digneris.

These prayers followinge ought to be sayed at your uprisinge. And incontinently by these wordes let him beginne to call them, as it is playne in that craft that ye goe about, and when this is said and donne he shall see them cominge, one euery side, and if they haue impediment one any part, and then cannot or will not come, ye shall begin with such a coniuration as followeth and note, they that be bound with chaynes of Iron if they cannot come to thee, they will send certaine messengers, and handle them as well as you can.

Amen, Amen, Amen. Adiuro vos per Dominum Nostrum natum ex maria virgine passum a Judeis suspensum in cruce motuum [sic] et sepultum inde venturum indicare vivos et mortuos et seculum per ignem.

Coniuro vos spiritus per dei tonitrua corustaciones et fulgura qui si mihi non obedieritis in vobis et in personis vestris ternent et per 7 ens candelabra ante altare dei lutentia, et per 7 em dona spiritui sancti, sancti paracleti, et per omnium sanctorum angelorum archangelorum et sanctorum miracula et per omnia documenta que fidei Christianae sunt instituta et per sanctorum aginna agni immaculati et per omnis sanctos quos deus elegit ante constitutionem mundi et per eorum merita deo benignissima placentia.

Coniuro vos demones spiritus per virtutes omnes herbarum lapidum Verborum et per omnia celestia terrestria et infernalia, et per omnem creaturam et per 2.

Coniuro vos demones per dominum totius creature artificem nostrum et admirabilem et per enoc et heliam morituros, a manibus Leviathan, et per angelum sanctum qui ante diem Iudicii spiritoris?

Adiuro vos demones spiritus per hec ineffabilia nomina dei, Radrnnnlas Asaac, Zephice, Phany, Harn, Chara, Adonay, Harneatha, Philac, avos hyra, bolera, volem, ladadoc, acazel, heloy, amagir, abraicio, archadul, Baratho, Jamull, Mel, Chadoc, Tracha, ely, aya Annstram, hungnna, mathea, dauid, dama?

Coniuro et contestor vos demones in quacunque parte mundi, sitis ut note habeatis licentiam morandi in aere, nec in terra, nec in aqua, nec in igne, nec in aliqua, parte mundi, nec in aliquo loco estimabitur infernus et penitus impleatus.

Coniuro vos per duas tabulas moysi et per quinque libris moysis et per 7 m Ierias que fuerunt in Chanaan galilee, et per 7 m candelabra aurea que ardent in celesti Iherusalem ante dominum, et per 7 m lampades ardentes que sunt 7 m spiritus dei, et per 7 m vasi aurea que sunt ante conspectum dei plena adoribus et orationibus sanctorum et per sanctas animas iustorum que salue facte sunt in archa Noe, et per nomen sanctum atque admirabile atque potentissime cuius nomen est Gabriel, qui omnes spiritus sustinet et detinet ab ipsa damnatione temperali usque in celestem consummationem et per ista ineffabilia atque inenarrabilia dei nomina que quotidie tremitis.

Et si tunc apparuerint ea hora ostende eis pentaculum et cum non apparuerint exaltet vocem suam sibilam magnum exeat cum magna impetu?

After you have donne in the East and South, then say to the West and North parts. Then if they be bound in Chaynes of Iron they will come excpt [sic] they be in some greevous place or [17v] holden or els they will send some certaine messengers wherby you shall know what they will doe, if they doe not appeare, then for these words, then let the coniurer rise up boldly, and strongly and comfort his fellowes, and let him beate the Ayre toward the 4 parts of y e world and standinge in the middes of y e circle upon his knees and his fellowes with him kneelinge and holdinge the booke, let him say with submissiue voice toward the east, Ubi est vos tales spiritus Angeli fuisti de g m ordinibus venite, venite per celestia signa et ineffabilia nomina nostri creatoris et per nomina Illorum angellorum qui vestri socii extiterunt, Iterum et iterum atque iterum vos exorsizamus, atque imperamus per potentissimum et corroboratum nomen dei Em?

Coniuro vos Demones in quacunque parte mundi sitis per potentissimum et corroboratissimum nomen dei El forte et admirabile, et Adonay , et per nomen istius libri per omnes eiusdem libri virtutes ne torosi aut deformes ad nos veniatis sed in omni pulchra forma ad nos festinetis, per nomen et in nomine Adonay Sabaoth eloe, eloyn, Saday, egge, Soth heth hevau vase quod est tetragrammaton in ineffabile quod est dominus virtutum deus excelsus deus Israel qui super omnium girum humanitatis et in septiono celo sedes eius et in terra potestas eius per eum et in nomine eius qui dicit et factum est qui precepit et stara omnium facta qui supra omnia dominantur, et per nomen eteloy , et in nomine quod iterum petrus est Ia Ia, Adonay, Sabaoth, deus deus, dominus virtutem egge quod dicitur ego sum qui sum et per nomen et in nomine Adonay quod nomen domini dei viui rex Israel in opia?

When this is done ye shall see the spirits cum and the diuells like unto emperours entringe into the Citye first te trumpeters shall come et patores 2dly like soldiers or domicelli, 3dly and lastly there king cometh and before him all kind of Instruments and of vices and dulcyflions orgaynes and harmony of sweet melody, then the coniurer, he seinge them shall shew him the pentacle that be upon the brest of the coniurer couered with a cloth of gold, when he hath seene the pentacle the prince and ruler of them incontinently followeth down upon [22v] his knees before the coniurer, and will say, Sr.

Then the coniurer somewhat disdayning, shall command all thinges to be pacified and silence to be had, and then he shall renew fumigations and cause a goodly smellinge sauoure to be made and when silence is made, he shall uncouer the pentacles, hearinge great miracles of diuers thinges in the world, of prophesie and of all science, then the coniurer shall uncouer the pentacles, and shall ask of y e prince what he will and by and by, he shall graunt it, whether one spirit alone, or els whether 2 be called forth, they will doe the same, the Coniurer shall say by and by, Let euery one of you turne into his place peaceably, and peace be between us and you.

And then let him say St. And let them goe out of the circle, one after another, and wash there faces of the exorcised water, as it is sayd after and let them goe an other way and doe there deedes or operations.

And knowe this, that this coniuration only and they were bound in Chaynes of Iron or of wood, they cannot tarry, but come foorth if they be Coniured and held by some meanes thay they cannot come, adde in Coniuratione that they send incontinently there pursenaunts [23r] and messengers to you shewinge you what they will doe, if they be any thinge rebellinge or stubborne against the Coniuror, and will not come let there names be written in paper and let the paper vitemperetur of clay and dust.

Let new fyer be made, and put in fyre of brimstone and of euill and horrible sights making a stinking sauour holding the paper ouer fyer sayinge Coniuro te ignis per illum qui Contremestere facit orbem quod istos spiritus Comburas et calefacias ut in suis per sonis Consentrent ineternam.

Then cast it in the fyer and say, Maledicti blasphemati sitis perpetualiter et eternaliter et Nulla requies sint in vobis hora aliqua nec de diem nec de nocte nisi statim veneritis obedientes verbis que dicuntur de illo qui contremescere facit orbem, et per hec nomina et in nomine istorum nominam quibus omnis creatura contremit humiliter obedit et per timorem et panorem eorum omnis creatura contremit et in eis fulgura et tonitria [?

Then without any tarryinge they will come one euery side, sayinge, Sr. Then in that howre write there names againe, and make to them a sweet smellinge sauour, and shew them the pentacles and aske what ye will, and when ye be answered say, Per virtutem pentaculorum dum ipsis pentaculis et verbis?

And by this Conjuration ye may Consecrate the booke and all that ye will; [Chap. In this Clauicle or Canderiarum consisteth all the Science of this Clauicle , for there, all the sience beginneth and therfore in the operation of this booke the Clauicle [Clavicle] doth take his effect, and he that will be perfect in this craft, let him begin soe as it is declared of the pentacle and of the same pentacles be certayne exorcizmes and names ineffable and carecters and signes of all the science, therefore, in them the whole science of all this art lyeth hydd the pentacles or canderie be [24r] uncertayne with most glorious and holyest names they were written in the tables of Moyses and Salomon by deuine reuelation had them and gathered them together, and consecrated them to all necessity of mans body, and for there safegard.

The Pentacles be made upon day, and on his howre the moone exconiunctione in the signe of the Ayre or of y e earth beinge equall with y e sonne in angiment pardica?

Adonay , sanctissime el , poteus ou , piissime quies Alpha et Omega , qui omnia in sapientia condidisti, qui Abraham primum fidelem in seruum elegisti eius semen sicut stellarum celi multiplicasti, qui morsi seruo tuo in ignea flamma de medio rubi [Ex ] appariusti, et per nomen sanctum tuum quod est, Echio, Affe, Eche, ei, reuelasti, qui populum super mare facile pedibus ambulare fecisti qui Moysi serui tuo in monte Sinay, Saluatoris dedisti, qui Salomon filio regis dauidis precuntis hominibus sapientiam tribuisti et presentia pentacula [25r] sine canderias pro tutumire?

Say this 3 dayes continuall upon the foresayed pentacles and cause 3 masses to be sayed of y e Holy Ghost, and one of Our Lady, and afterward put the foresaid signes, in a silke cloth with goodly sauours, and put them up in a cleane place.

And when it is neede, ye may worke as it is said of the artes magicall, of thy cloth were decked with gold it were of more efficacye, and when they be put in a cleane place, fumigate them and sprincle them with water and Isope [hyssop] and soe let them alone.

They haue immumerable vertues as it is contained heareafter. They give grace and victory of lovers and enemies visible and invisible, and by the vertue of them, the fyer is quenched and shall not passe your commandement, and the water standeth still, all creatures were made in the recommendation and feareth by there, feare, and all thinges heavenly, earthly, and infernall doth obey them and all perills of the world: be delivered by the healpe of God [26r] cum patre et filio, et sic honor et gloria in secula seculorum.

Now we shall beginne the Science of this booke. First before the inception of this booke worke let Arthanus be made, of the which incedat manicum sp r culi, 1 and for this ye must in euery operation of this booke, worke with holy water.

After that ye must consider the dayes and the howres, in the which the foresayd pentacles shall be purged or made, and the midds of all, let the maiesty be with angells like as he shall come to judge both quicke and dead, and in the circut of the maiesty, let the names of the ineffable be writen and of y e Angells.

And when these be fullfilled, let there be made and ordayned as in this chapter is contayned.

And when ye will worke in this science, of this Clavicle , haue over with you in every operation these pentacles, and by the healp of god, you operation shall haue effect, and forst in this chapter, all science consisteth, and if they consider of euery chapter of the second booke in y e which ye shall find all documents in this chapter, and for this in this chapter, consisteth the beginninge and ende of all the science of the Clavicle of Salomon , and if ye understand the chapter heareafter written, how of the worke of [26v] Images of Astronomy the beginninge and the endinge of all the whole science of the Clavicle , in this chapter is comprehended by this chapter of worke of Images, and by this of y e whole science comminge to effect and in euery worke ye may be perfect.

Heare followeth the forme and manner of the pentacles or canderarin distireco. These pentacles and ineffable names should be glorified with great honor and beloued and ought to be seene by noe meanes, but with great deuotion, for they be holynes of all holynes, for the defence of the body and the soale [soul].

Ye shall finde experiments my childe to finde Theft, prepared how be it should be, either by the invocation of y e art of spirits, either in writinge the carects [characters] or by other wayes, if in such an experiment, the day and the howre be not that is attributed to such experiment as it is sayd before of howres, and afterward ye ought to doe that, y t followeth in the experiment to finde theft, when y t is prepared, that ye will haue, say in your heart this oration of greecke.

Que mihi tribuas de hoc experimento cognoscere veritatem. After that suffumigate the place. Let him be fayer and private as ye shall see after of places, with such fumigations and sprincle the place with water and Isope, at [sic] it shall be sayd.

And if it be necessary in this experiment of this booke to doe any other thinge, doe as it is sayd of all preparaments with such experiments as is contayned [30r] before, and after, in the chapters of the first and the 2 d booke.

Ad reads 'I adjure you'] vos nos et per nomen sanctum tuum, Ioth, heth, he, vau, quod 4 or litteris scriptum est, et per hoc exorsismum huius artis possumus teneri veritatem Ia, Ia, Ia, ya, yath, nomina, I, ya, ya, ya, neh sancta dei faciatis rem istaui istam?

Coniuro vos spiritus per nominatos omnia nomina supradicta et per quem timet omnes creature ut cito vel cituis in vel huic pu. When that is sayd, the spirit will shew him by and by the matter that he seeketh openly and before such a worke, let such a Coniurer be, as ye shall reade, and if the experiments be such that the Caracters be written, and it is necessary howsoeuer the experiments be to finde theft, if it passe the preparaments of this experiment, let him doe as it is contayned in this Chapter, and doe all other necesseties or Solemnities necessary in such craft, or experiment, as it is contayned in the chapters of the first and 2 d booke, if it be done otherwise, it shall neuer come to effect.

If ye desire to make an experiment of invisibilitie, do y t experiment as it is contayned in it. Then make your Invocation surly and make it well, if it be neede make a Circle in such an experiment, make such as it is sayd beneath of circles.

And if it be needfull to write with any [31r] bloud, make it, as it is sayd, of the bloud of y e backe. And if it be neede to write carecters, write the masse, as we haue written hearafter of carecters.

And if ye haue an experiment of invisibility, in any other meanes haue that experiment prepared as ye shall finde written, withall, solemnityes necessary in that experiment, doe as it is contayned in the first and 2 d booke as through [31v] all, and when ye haue done the solemnitys of all the foresaid chapters, doe this experiment surely, and soe ye may finde it, and if ye should doe it otherwise, it should neuer come to effect.

Whosoeuer will make or prepare any thing upon any woman, first he must be such as a Coniurer ought to be, then let him take that experiment that he desireth to make and doe as it is contayned in it, and if the day doe fayle and the howre, doe it one such a day and howre as it shall be sayed.

And if this experiment be with an Image of wax, or of some other condition, before the Image be made, let the wax be such as we shall speake of.

Then say ouer the wax, when it is prepared these verses or charmes, Venus est Astropolu. Quod huic cere faciatis, habere effectum venit, enim de sancta sede Adonay timor qui vos voluntatem nostram facere, coartabit.

After that keepe this experiment under an aulter [altar], and ye shall worke such and howre as it is sayd after of places.

Then doe that experiment as ye ought withall his solemnities of our Chapters of the first and second Booke, and soe it shall appeare true as it is sayed before.

Sprincle him with water and Isope [hyssop] as it is said, and fumigate him with a fumigation. Coniuro te pomum vel fructum per ista nomina elya, ely, et per Michaelem et Gabrielem et Raphaelem et per eum qui te creauit et per virtutem eius et nomina eius ineffabilia.

Joth, Heth, He, Vau, Ioazar, patri, Va, Va, Vah, Vay, agla, anareneton, per que creauit omnem seculum ut qui vel que de isto pomo cõmederit vel viderit vel tegigerit nulla requies sit in eis nisi totam meam compleuerit voluntatem.

And if ye ought to wright any other thinge in the apple or frute, let it be written with a needle or a poyntell such as we speake of, and ye shall worke upon such an oration as it is sayd, after such experiments of love be made in lookinge onely the sight and the secrets of women, let such experiments be made and prepared in howres attribuated unto love, if ye doe as it is sayd, and if ye prepare such experiments they shall appeare very sure.

That donne let that breve be put under a Cloth of y e aulter [altar], for one day and an night. Afterward if ye will obtayne grace and favour of your freindes, let such one be ordayned opened in thy hand, and ask boldly one such an howre, as ye may see after of howres, [36r] and he shall have noe power to deny thee the grace, that ye aske him; and without this document, any other experiment of grace and impetration should be nothinge worth, and in whatsoever breve, or coniuration it be, let this verse be written or sayd at the ende, and it shall be as we have sayd.

Sator, arepo, tenet, opera, rotas, Ioth, heth, he, vau, y. Baltazar, Iapher, Melchior [i. And soe such a breve shall come to effect, by gods healpe.

The experiments of envy and destruction, may be any wayes. Then let it be put with an horrible savore by all y e might, then let the image be made on such an howre, and if the experiments of hatred and destruction be done otherwise as it is with carecters, or in names or in touchinge them that ye love or in wordes, or be any other meanes, the dayes and the howres be necessary, and if any other thinge be necessary, ye must doe that thinge that is contayned, in the [37r] chapters of the first and y e 2 d booke.

If the experiment be to giue any thinge to your lovers to eate or to drinke, because of discord, first let that thinge be taken for the dayes and the howres apt for it, and when they be prepared, and ordered, put these thinges before thee, and say, Ubi es sompniator, arator , et Lapidator, temptator, et deuorator, seminator, discordie et ubi est auditor odium poneus et positor discordie et exatores inimicorum.

Coniuro vos et contestor per illum qui creauit vos et per illum qui ad hoc ministerium vos ordinauit, et libenter faciatis talia opera.

Rago vos et deprecor que ista faciatis ita quae qui vel que de ista commederit, vel aliquo modo tetigerit, numquoque possuit ad concordiam convocari.

And afterward ye shall giue that thinge to your lovers, such an howre as it is sayd afterward, and it shall be.

Yf any experiment of Destruction be, let it be made after the chapters pertayninge unto such experiment, that be in the first and second booke and soe it is very trew.

Experiments ludibrious and derysions be made many wayes. Whensoeuer any experiment transfatorium when it is sure make a day and an howre meete [suitable] for him for it as it is sayd, aboue, and write all this experiment, as it is sayde in it, if it must be written in paper it must be writt as it is sayd of paper.

And if it be not sayd of what it must be writt, ye muste write it with the bloud of a backe, as it is sayed after of pen and inke.

And if in such the carecters be writt with the names they must be made, writt and wrought, so as it is contayned in the chapters of the first and y e 2 d booke, and when it is soe ordained, haue before thee all that experiment, and say upon it with a low voyce, in thy heart these wordes, Seternal, abac, abdac, istac, restac, audaac, castreac cobac, bator, lustor, crustor, derisor, besator, incarcerator.

Adestote triumphatores et faciatis apparere talem rem sicut sitis quia omnes aspicientes sunt orbiculati et prospiciendo semper cogitauit in vestro fruitio ut videndo talia qualibet sit in ludo et in eis [38r] appereat quod non est veniatis et sedeatis et consecretis istud breue vel incantamentum istud quia Iesus Nazarenus vos ad talia dedicauit.

After that breve or incantation, be made, let it be ordayned such an howre as it is sayde, after of howres. We haue sayd before of all experiments collected of all the world, and put together in certayne chapters.

Now followeth of experiments extraordinary, as experiments of hurtinge men, to cause them that they shall not lye with there wives, and experiments of concord and other like, and many other diuers experiments, as brevia , of many thinges, and other experiments.

And whatsoeuer be written of y t experiments in paper, with pen and inke, and in those experiments extraordinary that be for goodnes, howsoeuer they be, [38v] let this oration be sayd and write in it as it should be written, as we haue sayd, O deus qui fecisti omnia et qui nobis dedisti ad cognocendum bonum a malo per sanctum nomen tuum quod 7 is litteris scriptum est qualibet in se p r tet unum ex sanctis nominibus sicut scriptum est S.

And againe let this gospell be writt or sayd upon the experiments, That done and all the gospell sayd, ye shall worke after the howres as it followeth, and in such experiments extraordinary that be more for good then for evill, doe it as it is said.

And in them onely that be prepared for evill, let these charmes be written and sayd withall solempnitie, Nesuanotida, didico mansan, nesay, ysan, haspazar, hers, solidnatores, crioxlatos, Urizil, tangandu, in syon sacultaciornos, siu.

Afterward suffumigate that breve, and sprincle it with in the name of them that can doe such a thinge. Then let him worke upon such an howre, and soe it is sayd, of makinge of all experiments extraordinary good or evill, and consider whosoeuer doth purpose to make any experiment aforesayd, if one poynt of that we haue written doe lacke of y e experiments or craft, it shall neuer come to effect, and if ye consider and keepe stedfastly in your memory all that we haue written with the chapters followinge, ye may flye ouer the winges of the windes, and satistie your desire in euery thinge.

Finis primi Libri Claviculi Salomoni. This Little worke of my father Salomon is composed and deuided into 2.

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Get rid of your headache and let us help you improve your grades. Health Promotion in Nursing Practice A BitTorrent file distribution consists of these entities: There are ideally many end users for a single file.

Start running a tracker or, more likely, have one running already. Start running an ordinary web server, such as apache, or have one already.

Associate the extension. Generate a metainfo. Put the metainfo file on the web server. Link to the metainfo. Start a downloader which already has the complete file the 'origin'.

Install BitTorrent or have done so already. Surf the web. Click on a link to a. Select where to save the file locally, or select a partial download to resume.

Wait for download to complete. Tell downloader to exit it keeps uploading until this happens. Metainfo files also known as.

All strings in a. The name key maps to a UTF-8 encoded string which is the suggested name to save the file or directory as.

It is purely advisory. For the purposes of transfer, files are split into fixed-size pieces which are all the same length except for possibly the last one which may be truncated.

It is to be subdivided into strings of length 20, each of which is the SHA1 hash of the piece at the corresponding index. There is also a key length or a key files , but not both or neither.

If length is present then the download represents a single file, otherwise it represents a set of files which go in a directory structure.

In the single file case, length maps to the length of the file in bytes. For the purposes of the other keys, the multi-file case is treated as only having a single file by concatenating the files in the order they appear in the files list.

The files list is the value files maps to, and is a list of dictionaries containing the following keys: length - The length of the file, in bytes.

In the single file case, the name key is the name of a file, in the muliple file case, it's the name of a directory.

Tracker GET requests have the following keys: The 20 byte sha1 hash of the bencoded form of the info value from the metainfo file. This value will almost certainly have to be escaped.

Note that this is a substring of the metainfo file. The info-hash must be the hash of the encoded form as found in the.

Conversely that means clients must either reject invalid metainfo files or extract the substring directly. They must not perform a decode-encode roundtrip on invalid data.

Each downloader generates its own id at random at the start of a new download. This value will also almost certainly have to be escaped.

Generally used for the origin if it's on the same machine as the tracker. Common behavior is for a downloader to try to listen on port and if that port is taken try , then , etc.

Note that this can't be computed from downloaded and the file length since it might be a resume, and there's a chance that some of the downloaded data failed an integrity check and had to be re-downloaded.

If not present, this is one of the announcements done at regular intervals. An announcement using started is sent when a download first begins, and one using completed is sent when the download is complete.

No completed is sent if the file was complete when started. Downloaders send an announcement using stopped when they cease downloading.

Tracker responses are bencoded dictionaries. If a tracker response has a key failure reason , then that maps to a human readable string which explains why the query failed, and no other keys are required.

Otherwise, it must have two keys: interval , which maps to the number of seconds the downloader should wait between regular rerequests, and peers.

Note that downloaders may rerequest on nonscheduled times if an event happens or they need more peers.

More commonly is that trackers return a compact representation of the peer list, see BEP If you want to make any extensions to metainfo files or tracker queries, please coordinate with Bram Cohen to make sure that all extensions are done compatibly.

It is common to announce over a UDP tracker protocol as well. Peer connections are symmetrical. Messages sent in both directions look the same, and data can flow in either direction.

The peer protocol refers to pieces of the file by index as described in the metainfo file, starting at zero. When a peer finishes downloading a piece and checks that the hash matches, it announces that it has that piece to all of its peers.

Connections contain two bits of state on either end: choked or not, and interested or not. Choking is a notification that no data will be sent until unchoking happens.

The reasoning and common techniques behind choking are explained later in this document. Data transfer takes place whenever one side is interested and the other side is not choking.

Interest state must be kept up to date at all times - whenever a downloader doesn't have something they currently would ask a peer for in unchoked, they must express lack of interest, despite being choked.

Implementing this properly is tricky, but makes it possible for downloaders to know which peers will start downloading immediately if unchoked.

Connections start out choked and not interested. When data is being transferred, downloaders should keep several piece requests queued up at once in order to get good TCP performance this is called 'pipelining'.

On the other side, requests which can't be written out to the TCP buffer immediately should be queued up in memory rather than kept in an application-level network buffer, so they can all be thrown out when a choke happens.

The peer wire protocol consists of a handshake followed by a never-ending stream of length-prefixed messages. The handshake starts with character ninteen decimal followed by the string 'BitTorrent protocol'.

The leading character is a length prefix, put there in the hope that other new protocols may do the same and thus be trivially distinguishable from each other.

All later integers sent in the protocol are encoded as four bytes big-endian. After the fixed headers come eight reserved bytes, which are all zero in all current implementations.

If you wish to extend the protocol using these bytes, please coordinate with Bram Cohen to make sure all extensions are done compatibly.

Next comes the 20 byte sha1 hash of the bencoded form of the info value from the metainfo file. If both sides don't send the same value, they sever the connection.

The one possible exception is if a downloader wants to do multiple downloads over a single port, they may wait for incoming connections to give a download hash first, and respond with the same one if it's in their list.

After the download hash comes the byte peer id which is reported in tracker requests and contained in peer lists in tracker responses.

If the receiving side's peer id doesn't match the one the initiating side expects, it severs the connection.

That's it for handshaking, next comes an alternating stream of length prefixes and messages. Messages of length zero are keepalives, and ignored.

Keepalives are generally sent once every two minutes, but note that timeouts can be done much more quickly when data is expected.

All non-keepalive messages start with a single byte which gives their type. The possible values are: 'choke', 'unchoke', 'interested', and 'not interested' have no payload.

Its payload is a bitfield with each index that downloader has sent set to one and the rest set to zero. Downloaders which don't have anything yet may skip the 'bitfield' message.

The first byte of the bitfield corresponds to indices 0 - 7 from high bit to low bit, respectively.

The next one , etc. Spare bits at the end are set to zero. The 'have' message's payload is a single number, the index which that downloader just completed and checked the hash of.

The last two are byte offsets. Length is generally a power of two unless it gets truncated by the end of the file.

They are generally only sent towards the end of a download, during what's called 'endgame mode'.

When a download is almost complete, there's a tendency for the last few pieces to all be downloaded off a single hosed modem line, taking a very long time.

To make sure the last few pieces come in quickly, once requests for all pieces a given downloader doesn't have yet are currently pending, it sends requests for everything to everyone it's downloading from.

To keep this from becoming horribly inefficient, it sends cancels to everyone else every time a piece arrives. Note that they are correlated with request messages implicitly.

Downloaders generally download pieces in random order, which does a reasonably good job of keeping them from having a strict subset or superset of the pieces of any of their peers.

Choking is done for several reasons. TCP congestion control behaves very poorly when sending over many connections at once.

Also, choking lets each peer use a tit-for-tat-ish algorithm to ensure that they get a consistent download rate. The choking algorithm described below is the currently deployed one.

It is very important that all new algorithms work well both in a network consisting entirely of themselves and in a network consisting mostly of this one.

There are several criteria a good choking algorithm should meet. It should cap the number of simultaneous uploads for good TCP performance.

It should avoid choking and unchoking quickly, known as 'fibrillation'. It should reciprocate to peers who let it download. Finally, it should try out unused connections once in a while to find out if they might be better than the currently used ones, known as optimistic unchoking.

The currently deployed choking algorithm avoids fibrillation by only changing who's choked once every ten seconds.

It does reciprocation and number of uploads capping by unchoking the four peers which it has the best download rates from and are interested.

Peers which have a better upload rate but aren't interested get unchoked and if they become interested the worst uploader gets choked.

If a downloader has a complete file, it uses its upload rate rather than its download rate to decide who to unchoke.

For optimistic unchoking, at any one time there is a single peer which is unchoked regardless of its upload rate if interested, it counts as one of the four allowed downloaders.

Which peer is optimistically unchoked rotates every 30 seconds. To give them a decent chance of getting a complete piece to upload, new connections are three times as likely to start as the current optimistic unchoke as anywhere else in the rotation.

The BitTorrent Economics Paper outlines some request and choking algorithms clients should implement for optimal performance When developing a new implementation the Wireshark protocol analyzer and its dissectors for bittorrent can be useful to debug and compare with existing ones.

This document has been placed in the public domain. Singkat, Padat, dan Jelas Ingat bahwa perusahaan membutuhkan resume untuk mempercepat waktu mereka melakukan seleksi sebelum interview.

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Untuk orang yang sudah mempunyai pengalaman kerja cukup lama, halaman masih bisa ditoleransi tetapi tetap usahakan dalam 1 halaman kecuali anda benar2 memiliki hal khusus yang perlu ditulis sebanyak itu.

Context Action Result CAR framework Ketika saya melihat resume dari beberapa orang dalam menulis pengalaman kerja, biasanya mereka hanya menulis judul dari pekerjaannya dan waktunya.

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Grosir Baju Indonesia. Tetapi Perusahaan tidak akan pernah bisa melihat nilai lebih yang anda tawarkan.

Ketika mereka melihat resume dari kandidat lain mereka akan melihat hal yang sama. Bandingkan jika anda menulis seperti ini.

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How long did you walk your child to the door for school? Context : Macbeth is talking to the earth, in a soliloquy.

Significance : There are several possible meanings to this quote. If Macbeth is saying that sound will spoil the mood, then that is an example of metatheatre, which in a way, takes away from the gruesome details of the murder, as it somewhat breaks the forth wall and remind the listeners that Macbeth is only a character in a play.

This quote contains apostrophe, as Macbeth is talking to an inanimate object, and personification. Context : This quote is said by Macbeth to Lady Macbeth.

Macbeth had just killed Duncan, and he and Lady Macbeth are discussing what he had done. Macbeth is horrified and imagines voices that speak of his evildoings.

Macbeth will not sleep anymore. Later, Macbeth refers to himself using his three names, which could symbolize the three stages of his prophesy and his development.

Therefore, Glamis could symbolize his past self, which he was before he killed Duncan, Cawdor could symbolize his current self, which is who killed Duncan, and Macbeth could refer to his future self.

This follows the motif of three, as there were three witches and Hecate was commonly portrayed with three faces.

He feels very guilty, worried, and paranoid, so much as that he believes he will never be able to sleep again. His sleep will disappear along with his innocence, as sleep is depicted as innocent and good.

The witches punish people with lack of sleep, such as when they punished the sailor whose wife was mean with a lack of sleep.

This quote contains many metaphors. Context : This quote is said by Ross to an old man. They exchanging accounts of recent unnatural happenings.

It is the morning after Macbeth killed Duncan. Meaning : According to the clock, it is day, but darkness blocks the sun.

Is it dark because night has become more powerful than day, or because day is hiding its face in shame?

People at this time believed that social standing was determined by God, so trying to usurp someone to put yourself in their place goes against the natural order of things.

Kings were believed to also have been chosen by divine powers, so killing and usurping Duncan was especially heinous. The falcon could be representing King Duncan, while the owl, a bird often attributed to death, could represent witchcraft; therefore, this could be saying that witchcraft has killed Duncan.

Also, night, which can represent evil, is taking over day, which is good and supposed to be predominate.

This quote contains personification and metaphors. Context : Macbeth is talking to himself, in a soliloquy.

I have ruined my peace for their benefit and given my soul to the devil to make them, the sons on Banquo, kings. Instead of letting that happen, let fate come to the arena and fight me to the death.

Macbeth, who committed evil deeds, will be punished, while Banquo, who has been good and loyal to the king, will be rewarded.

This quote also contains personification and metaphors. Context : Macbeth is speaking to Lady Macbeth.

Meaning : We have hurt the snake, but have not killed it. It is better to be with the dead, whom we have killed and put to rest in order to secure our peace, than to lie with tortured minds in a frenzy of sleeplessness.

He decides that he rather destroy the world than continue to live in fear, which indicates the reign of terror that Scotland will fall under.

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The answer is yes — if you want to. Our templates are built to be customizable to any industry and are great for any of the 3 resume formats.

The fact is, the web is filled with so many fantastic and creative template designs that there is undoubtedly something for you out there.

Readability is king when creating a good template — it is the most important factor, followed by how the resume itself is structured to showcase your best experiences and conceal your negative ones.

Creating your own is fine, too. Wrong again. Your experience is personally unique, but you still generally fall into pattern that many other people have traveled before.

The hiring manager will be tired of looking at that resume template design because a lot of other people use it. That hiring manager should be fired.

We hope that clears up any misconceptions you may have had. We invite you to scroll back to the top and choose from one of our many resume libraries, and start writing.

Should i include collegiate sports in my resume? And if so where? It depends how much professional experience you have. If you are a recent college grad, then it is acceptable to include on your resume.

Good luck on the job hunt! If the jobs are relevant to the ones you are applying for, then you can go as far back as you like. Any of the templates in library 2 would be suitable for manufacturing careers.

Best of luck! Multiple employers with jobs lasting two to three years each. The jobs have been similar, so the experience looks a bit repetitive.

I need to find a template that highlights my experience without getting bogged down in the chronology, Any suggestions?

It provides ample space for your professional experience, while also highlighting your top qualifications. How would I write that on my resume?

Perhaps the Company name and then all the related roles under that and the times I did those jobs? I was always the Executive Admin, but I did other jobs during that period.

Yes, your suggestion is correct. Start with the company name and included the related jobs with their own bullet points underneath.

Good luck! Ive never had a job so what should I use? Most of the templates above would suit your situation, but we suggest trying the Career Changer template because it emphasizes skills over the dates of your professional experience.

Good luck with grad school! Hope this helps! Good luck with the internship! Good Day Resume Genius. The skill I know is more on the medical.

What template should I use? Which is good for cabin crew applicant? I have no many work experience in service.

So i want to highlight the other things. Which template would you recommend for a career in education? Best of luck on the promotion!

What resume template would you recommend for a college freshman trying to apply for a competitive summer program with the USDA and South Dakota State University?

Good luck with the summer program. Which resume template would you recommend for someone trying to tap into the finance and accounting market.

Looking for an entry-level position. Good luck with the job hunt. Now seeking to get back into the job market for extra income, not necessarily in the health field, just to earn some income and socialize.

What resume do you suggest? Good luck with your job search! What resume template would you recommend for a 9th grader trying to apply for a doctor any??

Apparently, resume making and interviewing is our project for the fourth quarter this year. Good luck on your project. Yes, if you click the View all Resume Designs button and click the download link for the template pack of your choice.

Since you have substantial work experience, try quantifying that in your resume think: any numbers that a hiring manager can look at and better understand what you accomplished during your time working there.

Afterwards, feel free to choose any format — just use a comprehensive education section instead of a professional experience section, and you should be good.

Good luck landing that internship! Get awesome job opportunities sent directly to your inbox.

Think you can judge the quality of a resume within 6 seconds? The answer may surprise you. Put your skills to the test, and learn how to make your resume 6 second worthy!

There are tons of errors throughout. See why. How to Modify and Maximize your Resume Template. Need a resume template?

Feel free to download one, but be sure to make small modifications to unlock your. Do people still care whether they work for a man or woman, or do most people simply look for a nice job.

Resume Builder Comparison Resume Genius vs. LinkedIn Labs. What are the differences between the major online resume builders?

Here's an in depth analysis of what. Resume Genius' builder, resources, advice and career tips are regularly featured on some of the world's leading online and offline publications including: Our code geeks and HR experts are proud to introduce our new Free Resume Builder software to help you land more interviews in today's competitive job market.

The rich are the big gainers in America's new prosperity. Add this article to your reading list by clicking this button. The gap between rich and poor is bigger than in any other advanced country, but most people are unconcerned.

Whereas Europeans fret about the way the economic pie is divided, Americans want to join the rich, not soak them.

Eight out of ten, more than anywhere else, believe that though you may start poor, if you work hard, you can make pots of money.

It is a central part of the American Dream. Thanks to a jump in productivity growth after , America's economy has outpaced other rich countries' for a decade.

In the late s everybody shared in this boom. Though incomes were rising fastest at the top, all workers' wages far outpaced inflation.

But after something changed. The pace of productivity growth has been rising again, but now it seems to be lifting fewer boats. If you take into account the value of employee benefits, such as health care, the contrast is a little less stark.

But, whatever the measure, it seems clear that only the most skilled workers have seen their pay packets swell much in the current economic expansion.

The fruits of productivity gains have been skewed towards the highest earners, and towards companies, whose profits have reached record levels as a share of GDP.

Even in a country that tolerates inequality, political consequences follow when the rising tide raises too few boats. The impact of stagnant wages has been dulled by rising house prices, but still most Americans are unhappy about the economy.

The White House professes to be untroubled. He is right, but his claim is misleading, since the median worker—the one in the middle of the income range—has done less well than the average, whose gains are pulled up by the big increases of those at the top.

Privately, some policymakers admit that the recent trends have them worried, and not just because of the congressional elections in November.

The statistics suggest that the economic boom may fade. Americans still head to the shops with gusto, but it is falling savings rates and rising debts made possible by high house prices , not real income growth, that keep their wallets open.

A bust of some kind could lead to widespread political disaffection. Eventually, the country's social fabric could stretch.

America is nowhere near Brazil yet see chart 1. Despite a quarter century during which incomes have drifted ever farther apart, the distribution of wealth has remained remarkably stable.

The richest Americans now earn as big a share of overall income as they did a century ago see chart 2 , but their share of overall wealth is much lower.

Indeed, it has barely budged in the few past decades. The elites in the early years of the 20th century were living off the income generated by their accumulated fortunes.

Today's rich, by and large, are earning their money. The rise of the working rich reinforces America's self-image as the land of opportunity.

But, by some measures, that image is an illusion. In America about half of the income disparities in one generation are reflected in the next.

In Canada and the Nordic countries that proportion is about a fifth. It is not clear whether this sclerosis is increasing: the evidence is mixed.

Many studies suggest that mobility between generations has stayed roughly the same in recent decades, and some suggest it is decreasing.

Even so, ordinary Americans seem to believe that theirs is still a land of opportunity. The proportion who think you can start poor and end up rich has risen 20 percentage points since That helps explain why voters who grumble about the economy have nonetheless failed to respond to class politics.

Americans tend to blame their woes not on rich compatriots but on poor foreigners. More than six out of ten are sceptical of free trade.

A new poll in Foreign Affairs suggests that almost nine out of ten worry about their jobs going offshore. Congressmen reflect their concerns.

Though the economy grows, many have become vociferous protectionists. Other rich countries are watching America's experience closely.

For many Europeans, America's brand of capitalism is already far too unequal. Such sceptics will be sure to make much of any sign that the broad middle-class reaps scant benefit from the current productivity boom, setting back the course of European reform even further.

The conventional tale is that the changes of the past few years are simply more steps along paths that began to diverge for rich and poor in the Reagan era.

During the s and s, the halcyon days for America's middle class, productivity boomed and its benefits were broadly shared.

The gap between the lowest and highest earners narrowed. After the oil shocks, productivity growth suddenly slowed.

A few years later, at the start of the s, the gap between rich and poor began to widen. The exact size of that gap depends on how you measure it.

Look at wages, the main source of income for most people, and you understate the importance of health care and other benefits. Look at household income and you need to take into account that the typical household has fallen in size in recent decades, thanks to the growth in single-parent families.

Look at statistics on spending and you find that the gaps between top and bottom have widened less than for income. But every measure shows that, over the past quarter century, those at the top have done better than those in the middle, who in turn have outpaced those at the bottom.

The gains of productivity growth have become increasingly skewed. If all Americans were set on a ladder with ten rungs, the gap between the wages of those on the ninth rung and those on the first has risen by a third since Economists have long debated why America's income disparities suddenly widened after The consensus is that the main cause was technology, which increased the demand for skilled workers relative to their supply, with freer trade reinforcing the effect.

Some evidence suggests that institutional changes, particularly the weakening of unions, made the going harder for people at the bottom.

Whether these shifts were good or bad depends on your political persuasion. Those on the left lament the gaps, often forgetting that the greater income disparities have created bigger incentives to get an education, which has led to a better trained, more productive workforce.

In their haste to applaud or lament this tale, both sides of the debate tend to overlook some nuances. First, America's rising inequality has not, in fact, been continuous.

The gap between the bottom and the middle—whether in terms of skills, age, job experience or income—did widen sharply in the s.

But during the s, particularly towards the end of the decade, that gap stabilised and, by some measures, even narrowed.

Real wages rose faster for the bottom quarter of workers than for those in the middle. After most people lost ground, but, by many measures, those in the middle of the skills and education ladder have been hit relatively harder than those at the bottom.

People who had some college experience, but no degree, fared worse than high-school dropouts. Some statistics suggest that the annual income of Americans with a college degree has fallen relative to that of high-school graduates for the first time in decades.

So, whereas the s were hardest on the lowest skilled, the s and this decade have squeezed people in the middle. The one truly continuous trend over the past 25 years has been towards greater concentration of income at the very top.

The scale of this shift is not visible from most popular measures of income or wages, as they do not break the distribution down finely enough.

But several recent studies have dissected tax records to investigate what goes on at the very top. The figures are startling.

Put these pieces together and you do not have a picture of ever-widening inequality but of what Lawrence Katz of Harvard University, David Autor of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and Melissa Kearney of the Brookings Institution call a polarisation of the labour market.

The bottom is no longer falling behind, the top is soaring ahead and the middle is under pressure.

Can changes in technology explain this revised picture? Up to a point. Computers and the internet have reduced the demand for routine jobs that demand only moderate skills, such as the work of bank clerks, while increasing the productivity of the highest-skilled.

Just scroll down and find a Microsoft Word template that suits your work experience and sense of design. Save time and effort — it does all of the writing and formatting for you.

Click the button below and get started! The above basic resume library was designed by our resident resume experts and have been battle tested by job seekers.

As this set performed the best, we included them in our resume builder software— and now we are offering them to you for free to download in Microsoft Word format.

Each professional template comes in five colors. Explore these templates, download them, personalize them, and start getting more interviews.

Resume Template Library 2: Advanced Layouts. Professional Brick Red. Timeless Dark Blue. Elegant 2. Modern Brick Red. Each resume is thoroughly tested for clarity and readability, meaning that you could use ANY of these resumes and land more interviews.

So have fun, and pick one that suits your sense of design. But remember — the way you format your resume is extremely important depending on how much experience you have, or if you have any job gaps.

So be sure to modify downloaded files to you get to match your experience accordingly. Template Library 3: Professional Profile Layouts. Washington Brick Red.

Murray Dark Blue. Trump Brick Red. Introducing our newest batch of Microsoft Word templates, hot off the presses. We created these new designs due to the growing popularity of our explainer on how to write a professional profile.

People interested in a layout featuring a PP introduction skyrocketed, so we toiled to create 8 brand new HR-approved documents for you to download for free.

Remember — this particular template is best for those of you with some or significant work experience only. Template Library 4: Creative Layouts.

Brooklyn Bridge Black. Taj Mahal Dark Blue. White House Brick Red. Empire State Gray. Mount Rushmore Dark Blue.

Are you having trouble separating yourself from your competitors? Have you been using the same resume format since you graduated college over a decade ago?

Then it might be time to add some style to your resume! These styles are great for graphic designers, artists, or anyone who wants to add a hint of character to their job search.

Job Hopper Original. Mid-Level Dark Blue. Career Changer Brick Red. Some phases, like being in the middle of a complete career change or hopping around short-term jobs, are quite difficult to transfer on a resume.

Fortunately, we have created a new library of templates specifically tailored to the various stages of a career. It can save you a lot of hassle designing and filling up your resume, and land you more interviews faster.

Not Sure Which Template to Choose? The answer is yes — if you want to. Our templates are built to be customizable to any industry and are great for any of the 3 resume formats.

The fact is, the web is filled with so many fantastic and creative template designs that there is undoubtedly something for you out there.

Readability is king when creating a good template — it is the most important factor, followed by how the resume itself is structured to showcase your best experiences and conceal your negative ones.

Creating your own is fine, too. Wrong again. Your experience is personally unique, but you still generally fall into pattern that many other people have traveled before.

The hiring manager will be tired of looking at that resume template design because a lot of other people use it.

That hiring manager should be fired. We hope that clears up any misconceptions you may have had. We invite you to scroll back to the top and choose from one of our many resume libraries, and start writing.

Should i include collegiate sports in my resume? And if so where? It depends how much professional experience you have.

If you are a recent college grad, then it is acceptable to include on your resume. Good luck on the job hunt!

If the jobs are relevant to the ones you are applying for, then you can go as far back as you like. Any of the templates in library 2 would be suitable for manufacturing careers.

Best of luck! Multiple employers with jobs lasting two to three years each. The jobs have been similar, so the experience looks a bit repetitive.

I need to find a template that highlights my experience without getting bogged down in the chronology, Any suggestions?

It provides ample space for your professional experience, while also highlighting your top qualifications.

How would I write that on my resume? Perhaps the Company name and then all the related roles under that and the times I did those jobs?

I was always the Executive Admin, but I did other jobs during that period. Yes, your suggestion is correct.

Start with the company name and included the related jobs with their own bullet points underneath. Good luck! Ive never had a job so what should I use?

Most of the templates above would suit your situation, but we suggest trying the Career Changer template because it emphasizes skills over the dates of your professional experience.

Good luck with grad school! Hope this helps! Good luck with the internship! Good Day Resume Genius. The skill I know is more on the medical.

What template should I use? Which is good for cabin crew applicant? I have no many work experience in service. So i want to highlight the other things.

Which template would you recommend for a career in education? Best of luck on the promotion! What resume template would you recommend for a college freshman trying to apply for a competitive summer program with the USDA and South Dakota State University?

Good luck with the summer program. Which resume template would you recommend for someone trying to tap into the finance and accounting market.

Looking for an entry-level position. Good luck with the job hunt. Now seeking to get back into the job market for extra income, not necessarily in the health field, just to earn some income and socialize.

What resume do you suggest? Good luck with your job search! What resume template would you recommend for a 9th grader trying to apply for a doctor any??

Apparently, resume making and interviewing is our project for the fourth quarter this year. Good luck on your project.

Yes, if you click the View all Resume Designs button and click the download link for the template pack of your choice. Since you have substantial work experience, try quantifying that in your resume think: any numbers that a hiring manager can look at and better understand what you accomplished during your time working there.

Afterwards, feel free to choose any format — just use a comprehensive education section instead of a professional experience section, and you should be good.

Good luck landing that internship! Get awesome job opportunities sent directly to your inbox.

Think you can judge the quality of a resume within 6 seconds? The answer may surprise you. Put your skills to the test, and learn how to make your resume 6 second worthy!

There are tons of errors throughout. See why. How to Modify and Maximize your Resume Template. Need a resume template?

Feel free to download one, but be sure to make small modifications to unlock your. Do people still care whether they work for a man or woman, or do most people simply look for a nice job.

Resume Builder Comparison Resume Genius vs. LinkedIn Labs. What are the differences between the major online resume builders?

Here's an in depth analysis of what. Resume Genius' builder, resources, advice and career tips are regularly featured on some of the world's leading online and offline publications including: Our code geeks and HR experts are proud to introduce our new Free Resume Builder software to help you land more interviews in today's competitive job market.

The rich are the big gainers in America's new prosperity. Add this article to your reading list by clicking this button.

The gap between rich and poor is bigger than in any other advanced country, but most people are unconcerned. Whereas Europeans fret about the way the economic pie is divided, Americans want to join the rich, not soak them.

Eight out of ten, more than anywhere else, believe that though you may start poor, if you work hard, you can make pots of money.

It is a central part of the American Dream. Thanks to a jump in productivity growth after , America's economy has outpaced other rich countries' for a decade.

In the late s everybody shared in this boom. Though incomes were rising fastest at the top, all workers' wages far outpaced inflation.

But after something changed. The pace of productivity growth has been rising again, but now it seems to be lifting fewer boats.

If you take into account the value of employee benefits, such as health care, the contrast is a little less stark.

But, whatever the measure, it seems clear that only the most skilled workers have seen their pay packets swell much in the current economic expansion.

The fruits of productivity gains have been skewed towards the highest earners, and towards companies, whose profits have reached record levels as a share of GDP.

Even in a country that tolerates inequality, political consequences follow when the rising tide raises too few boats. The impact of stagnant wages has been dulled by rising house prices, but still most Americans are unhappy about the economy.

The White House professes to be untroubled. He is right, but his claim is misleading, since the median worker—the one in the middle of the income range—has done less well than the average, whose gains are pulled up by the big increases of those at the top.

Privately, some policymakers admit that the recent trends have them worried, and not just because of the congressional elections in November.

The statistics suggest that the economic boom may fade. Americans still head to the shops with gusto, but it is falling savings rates and rising debts made possible by high house prices , not real income growth, that keep their wallets open.

A bust of some kind could lead to widespread political disaffection. Eventually, the country's social fabric could stretch.

America is nowhere near Brazil yet see chart 1. Despite a quarter century during which incomes have drifted ever farther apart, the distribution of wealth has remained remarkably stable.

The richest Americans now earn as big a share of overall income as they did a century ago see chart 2 , but their share of overall wealth is much lower.

Indeed, it has barely budged in the few past decades. The elites in the early years of the 20th century were living off the income generated by their accumulated fortunes.

Today's rich, by and large, are earning their money. The rise of the working rich reinforces America's self-image as the land of opportunity.

But, by some measures, that image is an illusion. In America about half of the income disparities in one generation are reflected in the next.

In Canada and the Nordic countries that proportion is about a fifth. It is not clear whether this sclerosis is increasing: the evidence is mixed.

Many studies suggest that mobility between generations has stayed roughly the same in recent decades, and some suggest it is decreasing.

Even so, ordinary Americans seem to believe that theirs is still a land of opportunity. The proportion who think you can start poor and end up rich has risen 20 percentage points since That helps explain why voters who grumble about the economy have nonetheless failed to respond to class politics.

Americans tend to blame their woes not on rich compatriots but on poor foreigners. More than six out of ten are sceptical of free trade.

A new poll in Foreign Affairs suggests that almost nine out of ten worry about their jobs going offshore.

Congressmen reflect their concerns. Though the economy grows, many have become vociferous protectionists.

Other rich countries are watching America's experience closely. For many Europeans, America's brand of capitalism is already far too unequal.

Such sceptics will be sure to make much of any sign that the broad middle-class reaps scant benefit from the current productivity boom, setting back the course of European reform even further.

The conventional tale is that the changes of the past few years are simply more steps along paths that began to diverge for rich and poor in the Reagan era.

During the s and s, the halcyon days for America's middle class, productivity boomed and its benefits were broadly shared.

The gap between the lowest and highest earners narrowed. After the oil shocks, productivity growth suddenly slowed. A few years later, at the start of the s, the gap between rich and poor began to widen.

The exact size of that gap depends on how you measure it. Look at wages, the main source of income for most people, and you understate the importance of health care and other benefits.

Look at household income and you need to take into account that the typical household has fallen in size in recent decades, thanks to the growth in single-parent families.

Look at statistics on spending and you find that the gaps between top and bottom have widened less than for income.

But every measure shows that, over the past quarter century, those at the top have done better than those in the middle, who in turn have outpaced those at the bottom.

The gains of productivity growth have become increasingly skewed. If all Americans were set on a ladder with ten rungs, the gap between the wages of those on the ninth rung and those on the first has risen by a third since Economists have long debated why America's income disparities suddenly widened after The consensus is that the main cause was technology, which increased the demand for skilled workers relative to their supply, with freer trade reinforcing the effect.

Some evidence suggests that institutional changes, particularly the weakening of unions, made the going harder for people at the bottom.

Whether these shifts were good or bad depends on your political persuasion. Those on the left lament the gaps, often forgetting that the greater income disparities have created bigger incentives to get an education, which has led to a better trained, more productive workforce.

In their haste to applaud or lament this tale, both sides of the debate tend to overlook some nuances. First, America's rising inequality has not, in fact, been continuous.

The gap between the bottom and the middle—whether in terms of skills, age, job experience or income—did widen sharply in the s.

But during the s, particularly towards the end of the decade, that gap stabilised and, by some measures, even narrowed.

Real wages rose faster for the bottom quarter of workers than for those in the middle. After most people lost ground, but, by many measures, those in the middle of the skills and education ladder have been hit relatively harder than those at the bottom.

People who had some college experience, but no degree, fared worse than high-school dropouts. Some statistics suggest that the annual income of Americans with a college degree has fallen relative to that of high-school graduates for the first time in decades.

So, whereas the s were hardest on the lowest skilled, the s and this decade have squeezed people in the middle.

The one truly continuous trend over the past 25 years has been towards greater concentration of income at the very top. The scale of this shift is not visible from most popular measures of income or wages, as they do not break the distribution down finely enough.

But several recent studies have dissected tax records to investigate what goes on at the very top. The figures are startling. Put these pieces together and you do not have a picture of ever-widening inequality but of what Lawrence Katz of Harvard University, David Autor of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and Melissa Kearney of the Brookings Institution call a polarisation of the labour market.

The bottom is no longer falling behind, the top is soaring ahead and the middle is under pressure. Can changes in technology explain this revised picture?

Up to a point. Computers and the internet have reduced the demand for routine jobs that demand only moderate skills, such as the work of bank clerks, while increasing the productivity of the highest-skilled.

Studies in Britain and Germany as well as America show that the pace of job growth since the early s has been slower in occupations that are easy to computerise.

For the most talented and skilled, technology has increased the potential market and thus their productivity. Top entertainers or sportsmen, for instance, now perform for a global audience.

Some economists believe that technology also explains the soaring pay of chief executives. One argument is that information technology has made top managers more mobile, since it no longer takes years to master the intricacies of any one industry.

As a result, the market for chief executives is bigger and their pay is bid up. Global firms plainly do compete globally for talent: Alcoa's boss is a Brazilian, Sony's chief executive is American and Welsh.

But the scale of America's income concentration at the top, and the fact that no other country has seen such extreme shifts, has sent people searching for other causes.

The typical American chief executive now earns times the average wage, up tenfold from the s. Continental Europe's bosses have seen nothing similar.

Whichever explanation you choose for the signs of growing inequality, none of the changes seems transitory.

The middle rungs of America's labour market are likely to become ever more squeezed. And that squeeze feels worse thanks to another change that has hit the middle class most: greater fluctuations in people's incomes.

The overall economy has become more stable over the past quarter century. America has had only two recessions in the past 20 years, in and , both of which were mild by historical standards.

But life has become more turbulent for firms and people's income now fluctuates much more from one year to the next than it did a generation ago.

Some evidence suggests that the trends in short-term income volatility mirror the underlying wage shifts and may now be hitting the middle class most.

What of the future? It is possible that the benign pattern of the late s will return. The disappointing performance of the Bush era may simply reflect a job market that is weaker than it appears.

Although unemployment is low, at 4. More likely, the structural changes in America's job market that began in the s are now being reinforced by big changes in the global economy.

The integration of China's low-skilled millions and the increased offshoring of services to India and other countries has expanded the global supply of workers.

This has reduced the relative price of labour and raised the returns to capital. That reinforces the income concentration at the top, since most stocks and shares are held by richer people.

More important, globalisation may further fracture the traditional link between skills and wages.

As Frank Levy of MIT points out, offshoring and technology work in tandem, since both dampen the demand for jobs that can be reduced to a set of rules or scripts, whether those jobs are for book-keepers or call-centre workers.

Alan Blinder of Princeton, by contrast, says that the demand for skills depends on whether they must be used in person: X -rays taken in Boston may be read by Indians in Bangalore, but offices cannot be cleaned at long distance.

So who will be squeezed and who will not is hard to predict. The number of American service jobs that have shifted offshore is small, some 1m at the most.

And most of those demand few skills, such as operating telephones. Mr Levy points out that only 15 radiologists in India are now reading American X -rays.

But nine out of ten Americans worry about offshoring. That fear may be enough to hold down the wages of college graduates in service industries.

All in all, America's income distribution is likely to continue the trends of the recent past. While those at the top will go on drawing huge salaries, those in the broad middle of the middle class will see their incomes churned.

The political consequences will depend on the pace of change and the economy's general health. With luck, the offshoring of services will happen gradually, allowing time for workers to adapt their skills while strong growth will keep employment high.

But if the economy slows, Americans' scepticism of globalisation is sure to rise. And even their famous tolerance of inequality may reach a limit.

Inequality and the American Dream. The world's most impressive economic machine needs a little adjusting.

A hidden industry has changed all our lives; but some companies are operating rather close to the. The battle for Arcelor is about more than steel.

It is time to look rationally at the idea of resuming whaling. There is no easy path towards peace, but Hamas cannot yet be wished away.

America's war for hearts and minds. A little politeness goes a long way. Of meat, Mexicans and social mobility. Among the very poor, the American Dream is alive and well.

The public buys its own campaigns, thank you very much. A Democratic candidate in sand-coloured combat boots. A sudden rush of better news, and not entirely fortuitous.

Should the dwellings of the poorest be rebuilt at all? A story especially for those not watching the football.

Violent crime appears to have stopped falling. Democrats have growing worries about the front-runner for the presidential nomination.

But can they. The public sector in Latin America is not spending enough on transport, electricity and water, but.

Fidel Castro declares war on corruption. Roberto Lavagna edges towards a presidential candidacy. The rising sun leaves some Japanese in the shade.

An emotional debate about those untouched by the economic recovery. But the president should survive. Chinese propaganda just isn't what it used to be.

The remarkable but little-discussed story of the world's most durable monarch. A sad case of post-prime-ministerial syndrome.

John Howard blocks Canberra's gay marriages. The Palestinians' Hamas government is increasingly besieged. But it is clinging to power, and to its.

The prime minister's good start. The message from Russia and China. An odd saga with Armenians has mocked the government.

Zambia has managed to avoid the crises plaguing its neighbours. Russian worries about Western encirclement are premature. After the Catalans, Basques and Andalusians want autonomy too.

Locals dream of reopening the frontier between Turkey and Armenia. The ruins of a contested capital are still hostage to geopolitics.

The annual report of the European Union as a club. Labour has focused too much on benefits and not enough on work.

The devil in the details. Not everyone who claims to. How to keep the Tube cool. The world's biggest civil IT project has not yet convinced Britain's doctors.

Company pension funds are being saved from destruction. How changes in the market have revived an ancient Egyptian art.

The limits of compassionate conservatism. Philosophical consistency is not David Cameron's priority. Companies are having to find new ways.

Like information on the internet, goods are moving around the world with ever greater efficiency. How three large and successful companies are using their supply chains to compete.

As distinctions between ownership and control become blurred, supply chains are getting more twisted. With more and more stuff being moved around the globe, efficiency is at a premium.

Winging it to the pot. Delivery companies are consolidating. A courier company goes online. Being too lean and mean is a dangerous thing.

Google dominates the lucrative market for web-search, but its rivals are setting out to change that.

A pioneering blogger moves on to the next big thing. Two historic German drugs firms scrap for control of a third.

Airbus's jumbo-sized problem threatens the firm's future. Mittal Steel's chances of taking over Arcelor are improving.

A turning point in relations between company owners and bosses? Doing business in a lawless part of Italy. Wind power has propelled Tulsi Tanti into the ranks of India's corporate titans.

America's Treasury market is unsettled by inflation, in another jittery week for the world's. The future of the central bank's governor is in doubt.

Why it pays to become America's treasury secretary. A sign that times are good in the overlooked world of accountants.

Securitising intellectual property. Companies are borrowing against their copyrights, trademarks and patents. The World Bank reveals what it thinks of its clients.

Tackling unemployment requires a careful mixture of policies. America's most famous weapons laboratory is under new management. The reason HIV is so virulent may have been found.

Evidence that Prozac stops people committing suicide. Amid controversy over immigration and the proper role of ethnography, Jacques Chirac prepares to.

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This manuscript represents one of the earliest manuscripts of the Key of Solomon Clavicula Salomonis , dated Mathers places his earliest manuscript, the Latin MS Add.

The present manuscript is in English and occasionally Latin, with orations in Latin. Its most notable characteristics are the strong Christian elements not found in the Colorno class of manuscripts.

Although it has many parallels with two other English manuscripts, Additional Ms. Rather, it appears to be an independent translation, probably from the Latin.

By contrast, Add. MS , Sl. The drawing shows this with a curved blade, distinct from but similar to the black-handled and white-handled knives "cuttellus niger" and "cuttellus albus".

Other manuscripts show it drawn more like a sickle. Mathers' translation from Add. The term evidently derives from the Latin word artavus quill knife or penknife.

A book by this name is also mentioned in Weyer's Pseudomonarchia Daemonum cf, 36 Gaap. Lylet, per honorem patris tui Arieth.

Catalogue entries as follows: For convenience, I have taken the liberty of copying the Table of Contents for Book 2 to the beginning of this transcript.

I have also amended it, since it does not actually agree with the layout of the text. The unamended version remains at the beginning of Book 2.

Salomon the Wise. Called his Clauicle Reuealed. The fumigation of is Saffron. Toward y e South. Nastegon, Sexagip.

Truly copyed verbum pro. Christo Roboam sayd what haue I deserued, why should I in any case be likned to my father.

I pray god that y t he desireth may neuer come to passe and effect; and as Ptolomeus the grecian coaduanced by the grace of god hath made cleare the profound and obscure secrets of this arte, as he was that y t foloweth, that were closed in the cheast of Iuory, and these be the words of y e said Clauicle that he declared marueilously in these two Bookes followinge.

Heare beginneth the rubrice of y e 2 d Book. Adiuva me exaudi in quacunque die invocauero ne derelinquas me domine Ihesu Christe et per tuam immensam miserecordiam ne dissesseris a me, intende in adiutorium meum domine deus salutis mee, iudues me domine Ihesu Christe viscem misericordie tue, et voluntatem, benignitatem, prudentiam, iusticiam, fortitudinem temperantiam, modestam patientiam, concordiam, pacem et in hijs omnibus perseuerantiam et castitatem tribuere digneris.

These prayers followinge ought to be sayed at your uprisinge. And incontinently by these wordes let him beginne to call them, as it is playne in that craft that ye goe about, and when this is said and donne he shall see them cominge, one euery side, and if they haue impediment one any part, and then cannot or will not come, ye shall begin with such a coniuration as followeth and note, they that be bound with chaynes of Iron if they cannot come to thee, they will send certaine messengers, and handle them as well as you can.

Amen, Amen, Amen. Adiuro vos per Dominum Nostrum natum ex maria virgine passum a Judeis suspensum in cruce motuum [sic] et sepultum inde venturum indicare vivos et mortuos et seculum per ignem.

Coniuro vos spiritus per dei tonitrua corustaciones et fulgura qui si mihi non obedieritis in vobis et in personis vestris ternent et per 7 ens candelabra ante altare dei lutentia, et per 7 em dona spiritui sancti, sancti paracleti, et per omnium sanctorum angelorum archangelorum et sanctorum miracula et per omnia documenta que fidei Christianae sunt instituta et per sanctorum aginna agni immaculati et per omnis sanctos quos deus elegit ante constitutionem mundi et per eorum merita deo benignissima placentia.

Coniuro vos demones spiritus per virtutes omnes herbarum lapidum Verborum et per omnia celestia terrestria et infernalia, et per omnem creaturam et per 2.

Coniuro vos demones per dominum totius creature artificem nostrum et admirabilem et per enoc et heliam morituros, a manibus Leviathan, et per angelum sanctum qui ante diem Iudicii spiritoris?

Adiuro vos demones spiritus per hec ineffabilia nomina dei, Radrnnnlas Asaac, Zephice, Phany, Harn, Chara, Adonay, Harneatha, Philac, avos hyra, bolera, volem, ladadoc, acazel, heloy, amagir, abraicio, archadul, Baratho, Jamull, Mel, Chadoc, Tracha, ely, aya Annstram, hungnna, mathea, dauid, dama?

Coniuro et contestor vos demones in quacunque parte mundi, sitis ut note habeatis licentiam morandi in aere, nec in terra, nec in aqua, nec in igne, nec in aliqua, parte mundi, nec in aliquo loco estimabitur infernus et penitus impleatus.

Coniuro vos per duas tabulas moysi et per quinque libris moysis et per 7 m Ierias que fuerunt in Chanaan galilee, et per 7 m candelabra aurea que ardent in celesti Iherusalem ante dominum, et per 7 m lampades ardentes que sunt 7 m spiritus dei, et per 7 m vasi aurea que sunt ante conspectum dei plena adoribus et orationibus sanctorum et per sanctas animas iustorum que salue facte sunt in archa Noe, et per nomen sanctum atque admirabile atque potentissime cuius nomen est Gabriel, qui omnes spiritus sustinet et detinet ab ipsa damnatione temperali usque in celestem consummationem et per ista ineffabilia atque inenarrabilia dei nomina que quotidie tremitis.

Et si tunc apparuerint ea hora ostende eis pentaculum et cum non apparuerint exaltet vocem suam sibilam magnum exeat cum magna impetu?

After you have donne in the East and South, then say to the West and North parts. Then if they be bound in Chaynes of Iron they will come excpt [sic] they be in some greevous place or [17v] holden or els they will send some certaine messengers wherby you shall know what they will doe, if they doe not appeare, then for these words, then let the coniurer rise up boldly, and strongly and comfort his fellowes, and let him beate the Ayre toward the 4 parts of y e world and standinge in the middes of y e circle upon his knees and his fellowes with him kneelinge and holdinge the booke, let him say with submissiue voice toward the east, Ubi est vos tales spiritus Angeli fuisti de g m ordinibus venite, venite per celestia signa et ineffabilia nomina nostri creatoris et per nomina Illorum angellorum qui vestri socii extiterunt, Iterum et iterum atque iterum vos exorsizamus, atque imperamus per potentissimum et corroboratum nomen dei Em?

Coniuro vos Demones in quacunque parte mundi sitis per potentissimum et corroboratissimum nomen dei El forte et admirabile, et Adonay , et per nomen istius libri per omnes eiusdem libri virtutes ne torosi aut deformes ad nos veniatis sed in omni pulchra forma ad nos festinetis, per nomen et in nomine Adonay Sabaoth eloe, eloyn, Saday, egge, Soth heth hevau vase quod est tetragrammaton in ineffabile quod est dominus virtutum deus excelsus deus Israel qui super omnium girum humanitatis et in septiono celo sedes eius et in terra potestas eius per eum et in nomine eius qui dicit et factum est qui precepit et stara omnium facta qui supra omnia dominantur, et per nomen eteloy , et in nomine quod iterum petrus est Ia Ia, Adonay, Sabaoth, deus deus, dominus virtutem egge quod dicitur ego sum qui sum et per nomen et in nomine Adonay quod nomen domini dei viui rex Israel in opia?

When this is done ye shall see the spirits cum and the diuells like unto emperours entringe into the Citye first te trumpeters shall come et patores 2dly like soldiers or domicelli, 3dly and lastly there king cometh and before him all kind of Instruments and of vices and dulcyflions orgaynes and harmony of sweet melody, then the coniurer, he seinge them shall shew him the pentacle that be upon the brest of the coniurer couered with a cloth of gold, when he hath seene the pentacle the prince and ruler of them incontinently followeth down upon [22v] his knees before the coniurer, and will say, Sr.

Then the coniurer somewhat disdayning, shall command all thinges to be pacified and silence to be had, and then he shall renew fumigations and cause a goodly smellinge sauoure to be made and when silence is made, he shall uncouer the pentacles, hearinge great miracles of diuers thinges in the world, of prophesie and of all science, then the coniurer shall uncouer the pentacles, and shall ask of y e prince what he will and by and by, he shall graunt it, whether one spirit alone, or els whether 2 be called forth, they will doe the same, the Coniurer shall say by and by, Let euery one of you turne into his place peaceably, and peace be between us and you.

And then let him say St. And let them goe out of the circle, one after another, and wash there faces of the exorcised water, as it is sayd after and let them goe an other way and doe there deedes or operations.

And knowe this, that this coniuration only and they were bound in Chaynes of Iron or of wood, they cannot tarry, but come foorth if they be Coniured and held by some meanes thay they cannot come, adde in Coniuratione that they send incontinently there pursenaunts [23r] and messengers to you shewinge you what they will doe, if they be any thinge rebellinge or stubborne against the Coniuror, and will not come let there names be written in paper and let the paper vitemperetur of clay and dust.

Let new fyer be made, and put in fyre of brimstone and of euill and horrible sights making a stinking sauour holding the paper ouer fyer sayinge Coniuro te ignis per illum qui Contremestere facit orbem quod istos spiritus Comburas et calefacias ut in suis per sonis Consentrent ineternam.

Then cast it in the fyer and say, Maledicti blasphemati sitis perpetualiter et eternaliter et Nulla requies sint in vobis hora aliqua nec de diem nec de nocte nisi statim veneritis obedientes verbis que dicuntur de illo qui contremescere facit orbem, et per hec nomina et in nomine istorum nominam quibus omnis creatura contremit humiliter obedit et per timorem et panorem eorum omnis creatura contremit et in eis fulgura et tonitria [?

Then without any tarryinge they will come one euery side, sayinge, Sr. Then in that howre write there names againe, and make to them a sweet smellinge sauour, and shew them the pentacles and aske what ye will, and when ye be answered say, Per virtutem pentaculorum dum ipsis pentaculis et verbis?

And by this Conjuration ye may Consecrate the booke and all that ye will; [Chap. In this Clauicle or Canderiarum consisteth all the Science of this Clauicle , for there, all the sience beginneth and therfore in the operation of this booke the Clauicle [Clavicle] doth take his effect, and he that will be perfect in this craft, let him begin soe as it is declared of the pentacle and of the same pentacles be certayne exorcizmes and names ineffable and carecters and signes of all the science, therefore, in them the whole science of all this art lyeth hydd the pentacles or canderie be [24r] uncertayne with most glorious and holyest names they were written in the tables of Moyses and Salomon by deuine reuelation had them and gathered them together, and consecrated them to all necessity of mans body, and for there safegard.

The Pentacles be made upon day, and on his howre the moone exconiunctione in the signe of the Ayre or of y e earth beinge equall with y e sonne in angiment pardica?

Adonay , sanctissime el , poteus ou , piissime quies Alpha et Omega , qui omnia in sapientia condidisti, qui Abraham primum fidelem in seruum elegisti eius semen sicut stellarum celi multiplicasti, qui morsi seruo tuo in ignea flamma de medio rubi [Ex ] appariusti, et per nomen sanctum tuum quod est, Echio, Affe, Eche, ei, reuelasti, qui populum super mare facile pedibus ambulare fecisti qui Moysi serui tuo in monte Sinay, Saluatoris dedisti, qui Salomon filio regis dauidis precuntis hominibus sapientiam tribuisti et presentia pentacula [25r] sine canderias pro tutumire?

Say this 3 dayes continuall upon the foresayed pentacles and cause 3 masses to be sayed of y e Holy Ghost, and one of Our Lady, and afterward put the foresaid signes, in a silke cloth with goodly sauours, and put them up in a cleane place.

And when it is neede, ye may worke as it is said of the artes magicall, of thy cloth were decked with gold it were of more efficacye, and when they be put in a cleane place, fumigate them and sprincle them with water and Isope [hyssop] and soe let them alone.

They haue immumerable vertues as it is contained heareafter. They give grace and victory of lovers and enemies visible and invisible, and by the vertue of them, the fyer is quenched and shall not passe your commandement, and the water standeth still, all creatures were made in the recommendation and feareth by there, feare, and all thinges heavenly, earthly, and infernall doth obey them and all perills of the world: be delivered by the healpe of God [26r] cum patre et filio, et sic honor et gloria in secula seculorum.

Now we shall beginne the Science of this booke. First before the inception of this booke worke let Arthanus be made, of the which incedat manicum sp r culi, 1 and for this ye must in euery operation of this booke, worke with holy water.

After that ye must consider the dayes and the howres, in the which the foresayd pentacles shall be purged or made, and the midds of all, let the maiesty be with angells like as he shall come to judge both quicke and dead, and in the circut of the maiesty, let the names of the ineffable be writen and of y e Angells.

And when these be fullfilled, let there be made and ordayned as in this chapter is contayned. And when ye will worke in this science, of this Clavicle , haue over with you in every operation these pentacles, and by the healp of god, you operation shall haue effect, and forst in this chapter, all science consisteth, and if they consider of euery chapter of the second booke in y e which ye shall find all documents in this chapter, and for this in this chapter, consisteth the beginninge and ende of all the science of the Clavicle of Salomon , and if ye understand the chapter heareafter written, how of the worke of [26v] Images of Astronomy the beginninge and the endinge of all the whole science of the Clavicle , in this chapter is comprehended by this chapter of worke of Images, and by this of y e whole science comminge to effect and in euery worke ye may be perfect.

Heare followeth the forme and manner of the pentacles or canderarin distireco. These pentacles and ineffable names should be glorified with great honor and beloued and ought to be seene by noe meanes, but with great deuotion, for they be holynes of all holynes, for the defence of the body and the soale [soul].

Ye shall finde experiments my childe to finde Theft, prepared how be it should be, either by the invocation of y e art of spirits, either in writinge the carects [characters] or by other wayes, if in such an experiment, the day and the howre be not that is attributed to such experiment as it is sayd before of howres, and afterward ye ought to doe that, y t followeth in the experiment to finde theft, when y t is prepared, that ye will haue, say in your heart this oration of greecke.

Que mihi tribuas de hoc experimento cognoscere veritatem. After that suffumigate the place. Let him be fayer and private as ye shall see after of places, with such fumigations and sprincle the place with water and Isope, at [sic] it shall be sayd.

And if it be necessary in this experiment of this booke to doe any other thinge, doe as it is sayd of all preparaments with such experiments as is contayned [30r] before, and after, in the chapters of the first and the 2 d booke.

Ad reads 'I adjure you'] vos nos et per nomen sanctum tuum, Ioth, heth, he, vau, quod 4 or litteris scriptum est, et per hoc exorsismum huius artis possumus teneri veritatem Ia, Ia, Ia, ya, yath, nomina, I, ya, ya, ya, neh sancta dei faciatis rem istaui istam?

Coniuro vos spiritus per nominatos omnia nomina supradicta et per quem timet omnes creature ut cito vel cituis in vel huic pu.

When that is sayd, the spirit will shew him by and by the matter that he seeketh openly and before such a worke, let such a Coniurer be, as ye shall reade, and if the experiments be such that the Caracters be written, and it is necessary howsoeuer the experiments be to finde theft, if it passe the preparaments of this experiment, let him doe as it is contayned in this Chapter, and doe all other necesseties or Solemnities necessary in such craft, or experiment, as it is contayned in the chapters of the first and 2 d booke, if it be done otherwise, it shall neuer come to effect.

If ye desire to make an experiment of invisibilitie, do y t experiment as it is contayned in it.

Then make your Invocation surly and make it well, if it be neede make a Circle in such an experiment, make such as it is sayd beneath of circles.

And if it be needfull to write with any [31r] bloud, make it, as it is sayd, of the bloud of y e backe. And if it be neede to write carecters, write the masse, as we haue written hearafter of carecters.

And if ye haue an experiment of invisibility, in any other meanes haue that experiment prepared as ye shall finde written, withall, solemnityes necessary in that experiment, doe as it is contayned in the first and 2 d booke as through [31v] all, and when ye haue done the solemnitys of all the foresaid chapters, doe this experiment surely, and soe ye may finde it, and if ye should doe it otherwise, it should neuer come to effect.

Whosoeuer will make or prepare any thing upon any woman, first he must be such as a Coniurer ought to be, then let him take that experiment that he desireth to make and doe as it is contayned in it, and if the day doe fayle and the howre, doe it one such a day and howre as it shall be sayed.

And if this experiment be with an Image of wax, or of some other condition, before the Image be made, let the wax be such as we shall speake of.

Then say ouer the wax, when it is prepared these verses or charmes, Venus est Astropolu. Quod huic cere faciatis, habere effectum venit, enim de sancta sede Adonay timor qui vos voluntatem nostram facere, coartabit.

After that keepe this experiment under an aulter [altar], and ye shall worke such and howre as it is sayd after of places.

Then doe that experiment as ye ought withall his solemnities of our Chapters of the first and second Booke, and soe it shall appeare true as it is sayed before.

Sprincle him with water and Isope [hyssop] as it is said, and fumigate him with a fumigation. Coniuro te pomum vel fructum per ista nomina elya, ely, et per Michaelem et Gabrielem et Raphaelem et per eum qui te creauit et per virtutem eius et nomina eius ineffabilia.

Joth, Heth, He, Vau, Ioazar, patri, Va, Va, Vah, Vay, agla, anareneton, per que creauit omnem seculum ut qui vel que de isto pomo cõmederit vel viderit vel tegigerit nulla requies sit in eis nisi totam meam compleuerit voluntatem.

And if ye ought to wright any other thinge in the apple or frute, let it be written with a needle or a poyntell such as we speake of, and ye shall worke upon such an oration as it is sayd, after such experiments of love be made in lookinge onely the sight and the secrets of women, let such experiments be made and prepared in howres attribuated unto love, if ye doe as it is sayd, and if ye prepare such experiments they shall appeare very sure.

That donne let that breve be put under a Cloth of y e aulter [altar], for one day and an night. Afterward if ye will obtayne grace and favour of your freindes, let such one be ordayned opened in thy hand, and ask boldly one such an howre, as ye may see after of howres, [36r] and he shall have noe power to deny thee the grace, that ye aske him; and without this document, any other experiment of grace and impetration should be nothinge worth, and in whatsoever breve, or coniuration it be, let this verse be written or sayd at the ende, and it shall be as we have sayd.

Sator, arepo, tenet, opera, rotas, Ioth, heth, he, vau, y. Baltazar, Iapher, Melchior [i. And soe such a breve shall come to effect, by gods healpe.

The experiments of envy and destruction, may be any wayes. Then let it be put with an horrible savore by all y e might, then let the image be made on such an howre, and if the experiments of hatred and destruction be done otherwise as it is with carecters, or in names or in touchinge them that ye love or in wordes, or be any other meanes, the dayes and the howres be necessary, and if any other thinge be necessary, ye must doe that thinge that is contayned, in the [37r] chapters of the first and y e 2 d booke.

If the experiment be to giue any thinge to your lovers to eate or to drinke, because of discord, first let that thinge be taken for the dayes and the howres apt for it, and when they be prepared, and ordered, put these thinges before thee, and say, Ubi es sompniator, arator , et Lapidator, temptator, et deuorator, seminator, discordie et ubi est auditor odium poneus et positor discordie et exatores inimicorum.

Coniuro vos et contestor per illum qui creauit vos et per illum qui ad hoc ministerium vos ordinauit, et libenter faciatis talia opera.

Rago vos et deprecor que ista faciatis ita quae qui vel que de ista commederit, vel aliquo modo tetigerit, numquoque possuit ad concordiam convocari.

And afterward ye shall giue that thinge to your lovers, such an howre as it is sayd afterward, and it shall be.

Yf any experiment of Destruction be, let it be made after the chapters pertayninge unto such experiment, that be in the first and second booke and soe it is very trew.

Experiments ludibrious and derysions be made many wayes.

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